PEACEKEEPING

A Selected Bibliography

January 1995

Compiled by Virginia Shope

U.S. Army War College Library

Carlisle Barracks, PA

"Peacekeeping is not a soldier's job, but only a soldier can do it."

-unofficial motto of the United Nations soldier.

Preface

With the end of the Cold War, there has been a significant increase in peacekeeping missions around the globe. To assist student researchers in a better understanding of peace-keeping's expanding role, the U.S. Army War College Library presents this revised and updated edition of Peacekeeping: A Selected Bibliography.

This edition cites materials primarily from the 1990s, with special emphasis on books, documents, and periodical articles added to our library's collection during 1994. For earlier citations, researchers should consult the previous edition which generally covers publications dated 1980 through 1993.

All materials referenced in the bibliography are readily available in the USAWC Library. For your convenience, we have added our call numbers at the end of each book entry (keep in mind that call numbers vary from library to library).

For additional information, please contact the Research and Information Services Branch, U.S. Army War College Library, by sending an e-mail message to awcsl@awc.carlisle.army.mil, or by phoning DSN 242-4280 or Commercial (717) 2454280.

Virginia C. Shope, compiler

PEACEKEEPING

A Selected Bibliography

CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

NATIONAL VIEWS ON PEACEKEEPING: PERSPECTIVES, GUIDELINES,

AND POLICIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

United States 11

Other Countries and Regions 17

PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS AROUND THE WORLD,

PAST AND PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Maps and Lists 21

Africa 21

Asia 30

Central America 33

Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States 33

Middle East and Mediterranean 37

SPECIAL PEACEKEEPING ASPECTS, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

OTHER BIBLIOGRAPHIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

GENERAL INFORMATION

Books and Documents

Baehr, Peter R., and Gordenker, Leon. The United Nations in the 1990s. 2d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. 197pp. Pp. 60-98: "The Maintenance of Peace and Security." (JX1977 .B213 1994)

Berdal, Mats R. Whither UN Peacekeeping? Adelphi Paper No. 81. London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1993. 88pp. (JX1981 .P7B4 1993)

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping: Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to the Statement Adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992. New York: United Nations, 1992. 53pp. (JX1953 .B68 1992)

Burk, James, ed. The Military in New Times: Adapting Armed Forces to a Turbulent World. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. 212pp. Pp. 163-180: "Multinational Peacekeeping Operations: Background and Effectiveness," by David R. Segal and Robert J. Waldman. (UA11 .M466 1994)

"Charter of the United Nations," in United Nations. Department of Public Information. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1988. Vol. 42. Boston: Nijhoff, 1994. Pp. 991-1004. (Ref JX1977 .A37Y4 1988)

Conflict Studies Conference, September 1992, University of New Brunswick. Peacekeeping and the Challenge of Civil Conflict Resolution. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference, ed. by David A. Charters. Fredericton, NB: University of New Brunswick, Centre of Conflict Studies, 1994. 220pp. (JX1981 .P7C51 1994)

Cronin, Patrick M., ed. From Globalism to Regionalism: New Perspectives on US Foreign and Defense Policies. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1993. 259pp. Pp. 181-197: "United Nations Forces and Regional Conflicts," by William J. Durch. (E881 .F76 1992)

Daniel, Donald C.F. Issues and Considerations in UN Gray Area and Enforcement Operations. Research Memorandum 4-94. Newport: US Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Strategic Research Department, 1994. 10pp. (V420 .D27 1994)

Dennehy, Edward J., et al. A Blue Helmet Combat Force. National Security Program Policy Analysis Paper 93-01. Cambridge: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1993. 33pp. (UA10.5 .N34 93-01)

Diehl, Paul F. International Peacekeeping. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. 211pp. (JX1981 .P7D46 1993)

Dupuy, Trevor N., et al, eds. International Military and Defense Encyclopedia. Washington: Brassey's, 1993. Vol. 5, pp. 2112-2117: "Peacekeeping," by Gunther G. Greindl. (Ref U24 .I58 1993 v.5)

Durch, William J. The United Nations and Collective Security in the 21st Century. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, February 1993. 38pp. (U413 .A66D87 1993)

Durch, William J., and Blechman, Barry M. Keeping the Peace: The United Nations in the Emerging World Order. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Center, March 1992. 108pp. (JX19891 .P7D87 1992)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Evans, Gareth J. Cooperating for Peace: The Global Agenda for the 1990's and Beyond. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1993. 224pp. Pp. 99-129: "Peace Keeping." (JX1952 .E98 1993)

Forster, Larry M. Peace Operations: Forging the Instruments and Keeping the Edge. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 2 April 1993. 39pp. (AD-A264-204)

Gallagher, James J. Low-Intensity Conflict: A Guide for Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1992. 210pp. Pp. 109-129: "Peacekeeping Operations." (U240 .G28 1992)

Gardner, Richard N., and Lorenz, Joseph P. Post-Gulf War Challenges to the UN Collective Security System: Two Views on the Issue of Collective Security. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, June 1992. 55pp. (UA10.5 .G16 1992)

Holmes, Walter M. The United Nations: Towards Being an Effective World Policeman. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 1993. 36pp. (AD-A263-591)

James, Alan. Peacekeeping in International Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. 378pp. (JX44881 .J36 1990)

Klare, Michael T., and Thomas, Daniel C. World Security: Challenges for a New Century. 2d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. 408pp. Pp. 188-215: "Maintaining Interna- tional Peace and Security: UN Peacekeeping and Peacemaking," by Margaret P. Karns and Karen A. Mingst. (JX19452 .K488 1994)

Lee, John M.; Pagenhardt, Robert V.; and Stanley, Timothy W. To Unite Our Strength: Enhancing the United Nations Peace and Security System. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992. 166pp. (JX1981 .P7L42 1992)

Lewis, William H., ed. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. McNair Paper Seventeen. Washington: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, June 1993. 98pp. (U411 .I6M12 no.17)

Liu, F.T. United Nations Peacekeeping and the Non-Use of Force. Boulder: Rienner, 1992. 46pp. (JX1981 .P7L585 1992)

Metz, Steven. The Future of the United Nations: Implications for Peace Operations. Special Report. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 5 October 1993. 40pp. (U413 .A66 SR M27)

Norton, Augustus R., and Weiss, Thomas G. UN Peacekeepers: Soldiers with a Difference. Headline Series No. 292. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1990. 64pp. (E744 .H43 no. 292)

Petrie, John N., ed. Essays on Strategy XI. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1994. 403pp. Pp. 49-75: "The UN Secretary-General's Peacekeeping Proposals," by C.W. Hoffman, Jr. (U162 .E87 1994)

Renner, Michael. Critical Juncture: The Future of Peacekeeping. Worldwatch Paper 114. Washington: Worldwatch Institute, May 1993. 74pp. (UA646.3 .R25 1993)

Roberts, Adam, and Kingsbury, Benedict, eds. United Nations, Divided World: The UN's Roles in International Relations. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 589pp. (JX1977 .U42 1993)

Rodley, Nigel S., ed. To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights. New York: Macmillan, 1992. 287pp. Pp. 165-197: "Military Intervention and UN Peacekeeping," by Richard Connaughton. (JX4481 .L59 1992)

Roper, John, et al. Keeping the Peace in the Post-Cold War Era: Strengthening Multilateral Peacekeeping: A Report to the Trilateral Commission. Triangle Papers No. 43. New York: Trilateral Commission, 1993. 101pp. (JX1954 .K345 1993)

Schnese, Craig M. United Nations-Divided States: Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Thesis. Monterey: US Naval Postgraduate School, December 1993. 236pp. (V425 .U5 TH S26)

Siekmann, Robert C.R. National Contingents in United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces. Boston: Nijhoff, 1991. 229pp. (JX1981 .P7S4913 1991)

Sihota, Aneet S. The United Nations in Peacekeeping Operations of the Future. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 15 April 1993. 55pp. (AD-A264-907)

Smith, Hugh, ed. Peacekeeping: Challenges for the Future. Canberra: Australian Defence Force Academy, Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1993. 229pp. (JX1981 .P7S56 1993)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 13-80: "Multilateral Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution." (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Tessitore, John, and Woolfson, Susan, eds. A Global Agenda: Issues Before the 48th General Assembly of the United Nations. Annual publication of the United Nations Association of the United States of America. Lanham: University Press of America, 1993. Part 1: "Making and Keeping the Peace." (JX1977 .A1U52 1993-94)

Tharoor, Shashi. Peace-Keeping: Principles, Problems, Prospects. Research Report 9-93. Newport: US Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Strategic Research Department, 22 December 1993. 10pp. (V420 .T42 1994)

Also in Naval War College Review, Vol. 47, Spring 1994, pp. 9-22. (Periodical)

Thomas, Timothy L. Peace Operations: The Terminology Challenge Before the International Community in a Period of Post-Cold War Cooperation. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Combined Arms Command, Foreign Military Studies Office, November 1993. 12pp. (U415 .F5T35 1993)

United Nations. Department of Public Information. The Blue Helmets: A Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping. New York: 1985. 350pp. (JX1981 .P7B58 1985)

US Army Combined Arms Command. Center for Army Lessons Learned. Operations Other Than War: Volume IV: Peace Operations. CALL Newsletter No. 93-8. Fort Leavenworth: December 1993. 1 vol. (U408.3 .C24 no.93-08)

US Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Operations and the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations. Future of U.N. Peacekeeping Operations. Hearing, 102d Cong., 2d Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1992. 109pp. (CIS Microfiche 1992 H381-52)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Reform of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: A Mandate for Change. Committee Print, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, August 1993. 106pp. (JX1981 .P7R43 1993)

Weiss, Thomas G.; Forsythe, David P.; and Coate, Roger A. The United Nations and Changing World Politics. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. 292pp. (JX1977 .W42 1994)

Chap. 2: "The Reality of UN Security Efforts During the Cold War."

Chap. 3: "UN Security Operations After the Cold War."

Wellwood, Christopher R. United Nations Peacekeeping: The Road to Success. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 13 February 1992. 37pp. (AD-A247-953)

White, N.D. The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. New York: Manchester University Press, 1990. 240pp. (JX1981 .P7W47 1990)

Willey, James M. Collective Engagement, Peacekeeping, and Operations Other Than War. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 5 April 1993. 31pp. (AD-A264-536)

Videorecording

Center for Defense Information. The U.N.'s Blue Helmets. Oakland: Video Project, 1989. Videorecording, 29 mins. (VIDEO JX1981 .P7U5 1989)

History and future of the UN military peacekeeping forces.

Periodicals That Focus on Peacekeeping Issues

International Peacekeeping. London: Frank Cass. Quarterly issues.

Peacekeeping & International Relations. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. Bi-monthly issues.

United States Institute of Peace Journal. Washington: United States Institute of Peace. Bi-monthly issues.

Periodical Articles

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. "Peacekeeping: Our Least Understood Mission." Military Intelligence, July-September 1992, pp. 17-19.

Albright, Madeleine K. "U.N. Reform for Peacekeeping, Collective Security." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, September-October 1993, pp. 30-38.

Selected statements and speeches, 8-24 June 1993.

Annan, Kofi A. "The Path of Peace-Keeping: Translating Commitment into Action." Harvard International Review, Vol. 15, Summer 1993, pp. 34-35, 67-68.

Armstrong, Charles L. "From Futility to Insanity-A Brief Overview of United Nations Failures." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 46-48.

Baker, James H. "Policy Challenges of UN Peace Operations." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 13-26.

Blodgett, John Q. "The Future of UN Peacekeeping." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 14, Winter 1991, pp. 207-220.

Bolton, John R. "U.N. Peacekeeping Efforts to Promote Security and Stability." DISAM Journal, Vol. 14, Summer 1992, pp. 50-54.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "An Agenda for Peace: One Year Later." Orbis, Vol. 37, Summer 1993, pp. 323-332.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Empowering the United Nations." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 71, Winter 1992-1993, pp. 89-102.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Great Expectations: The UN's Boutros-Ghali Prepares for Unknown Challenges." Interview. Maclean's, Vol. 106, 30 August 1993, p. 30.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Setting a New Agenda for the United Nations." Interview. Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 289-298.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "UN Peace-Keeping in a New Era: A New Chance for Peace." World Today, Vol. 49, April 1993, pp. 66-69.

Brady, Christopher, and Daws, Sam. "UN Operations: The Political-Military Interface." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 59-79.

Bremner, J.S., and Snell, J.M. "The Changing Face of Peacekeeping." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 22, August 1992, pp. 6-11.

"Broader Horizons: Growing Responsibilities." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 90-91.

Burback, Steve. "The Blue Helmets: A History of United Nations Peacekeeping Forces." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, January 1994, pp. 2-6.

Coate, Roger A., and Puchala, Donald J. "Global Policies and the United Nations System: A Current Assessment." Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27, May 1990, pp. 127-140.

Connaughton, Richard. "Time to Clear the Doctrine Dilemma." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 9 April 1994, pp. 19-20.

Corelli, Rae. "Global Cops: With Its Peacekeepers Around the World Under Attack or Ignored, the United Nations Struggles to Police the Globe." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 18 January 1993, pp. 22-25.

Diehl, Paul F. "Institutional Alternatives to Traditional U.N. Peacekeeping: An Assessment of Regional and Multinational Options." Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 19, Winter 1993, pp. 209-230.

Diehl, Paul F. "Regional Alternatives to UN Peacekeeping Operations." Swords and Ploughshares, Vol. 8, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 7-11.

Diehl, Paul F., and Kumar, Chetan. "Mutual Benefits from International Intervention: New Roles for United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces." Bulletin of Peace Proposals, Vol. 22, December 1991, pp. 369-375.

Dobbie, Charles. "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 121-148.

Fetherston, A.B. "Putting the Peace Back into Peacekeeping: Theory Must Inform Practice." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 3-29.

Fisher, Ronald J. "The Potential for Peacebuilding: Forging a Bridge from Peacekeeping to Peacemaking." Peace & Change, Vol. 18, July 1993, pp. 247-266.

"Goulding Describes New Era of Peace-Keeping." UN Chronicle, Vol. 29, September 1992, pp. 16-17.

Marrack Goulding, Under-Secretary-General for Peace-Keeping Operations.

Goulding, Marrack. "The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping." International Affairs, Vol. 69, July 1993, pp. 451-464.

Grey, Robert T., Jr. "Strengthening the United Nations to Implement the _Agenda for Peace_." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Summer 1993, pp. 20-25.

Hagglund, Gustav. "Peace-Keeping in a Modern War Zone." Survival, Vol. 32, May-June 1990, pp. 233-240.

Hall, Brian. "Blue Helmets, Empty Guns." New York Times Magazine, 2 January 1994, pp. 18-25, 30, 38, 41-43.

Henn, Francis. "UN Peacekeeping: The Mirror Should Be Polished." Contemporary Review, Vol. 264, June 1994, pp. 281-287.

Henrikson, Alan K. "How Can the Vision of a _New World Order_ Be Realized?" Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 16, Winter 1992, pp. 63-79.

Hillen, John F., III. "UN Collective Security: Chapter Six and a Half." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 27-37.

Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 323-340.

Holst, Johan J. "Enhancing Peace-Keeping Operations." Survival, Vol. 32, May-June 1990, pp. 264-275.

Hunt, John B. "Thoughts on Peace Support Operations." Military Review, Vol. 74, October 1994, pp. 76-85.

Inge, Peter. "UN Operations in a Changing Security Environment." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 372-373.

James, Alan. "The History of Peacekeeping: An Analytical Perspective." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 10-17.

James, Alan. "Internal Peace-Keeping: A Dead End for the UN?" Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, December 1993, pp. 359-368.

Johansen, Robert C. "UN Peacekeeping: The Changing Utility of Military Force." Third World Quarterly, Vol. 12, April 1990, pp. 53-70.

Kearns, Darien L. "The Need for Criteria in UN Peace Operations." Military Review, Vol. 74, July 1994, pp. 34-42.

Kemp, Ian. "Peacekeeping Between the Battle Lines." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 19, 13 March 1993, pp. 23-28.

Lewis, Paul. "A Short History of United Nations Peacekeeping." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 33-47.

Lewis, William H. "Peacekeeping: The Deepening Debate." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Summer 1993, pp. 26-32.

Lewis, William H., and Sewall, John O.B. "United Nations Peacekeeping: Ends versus Means." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 1, Summer 1993, pp. 48-57.

Includes map of on-going peacekeeping missions, pp. 52-53.

Lind, Michael. "Alboutros: The Imperial U.N. Secretary-General." New Republic, Vol. 208, 28 June 1993, pp. 16-20.

Secretary-General of the UN, Boutros Boutros-Ghali.

Lind, Michael. "Peacefaking: The Case Against U.N. _Peacemaking_." New Republic, Vol. 209, 8 November 1993, p. 14-17.

Loomis, Dan. "Prospects for UN Peacekeeping." Global Affairs, Vol. 8, Winter 1993, pp. 125-140.

Luck, Edward C., and Gati, Toby T. "Whose Collective Security?" Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Spring 1992, pp. 43-56.

Lyons, Gene M. "A New Collective Security: The United Nations and International Peace." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 17, Spring 1994, pp. 173-199.

Mackinlay, John. "Improving Multifunctional Forces." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 149-173.

Mackinlay, John. "Powerful Peace-Keepers." Survival, Vol. 32, May-June 1990, pp. 241-250.

Mackinlay, John, and Chopra, Jarat. "Second Generation Multinational Operations." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Summer 1992, pp. 113-131.

Mallinson, Allan. "No Middle Ground for UN." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 14 May 1994, pp. 19-20.

Mann, Edward. "Military Support for _Peace Efforts_." Airpower Journal, Vol. 7, Fall 1993, pp. 51-61.

Martin, Laurence. "Peacekeeping as a Growth Industry." National Interest, No. 32, Summer 1993, pp. 3-11.

Martinez, William J. "Peace Operations." Infantry, Vol. 84, May-June 1994, pp. 39-40.

Meacham, James. "From Peacekeeping to Peacemaking: United Nations Faces a Changing Role." International Defense Review, Vol. 25, March 1992, pp. 217-221.

Menon, Bhaskar. "A Dangerous Time for Peace-Keepers." World Press Review, Vol. 40, October 1993, pp. 15-16.

Morrison, Alex. "Beware the Definitional Morass." Editorial. Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, November-December 1993, p. 1.

Discusses Boutros-Ghali's definition of peacekeeping.

"No Peace in Peacekeeping." Cover Story. Army Times, 11 October 1993, pp. 14-16.

"Non-Traditional Missions and the Use of Force: The Debate Over Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and Related Operations." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, entire issue.

Norton, Augustus R. "Peacekeeping, Civil Society and Conflict Regulation." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 31-33.

"Peace-Keeping: A Whole New Range of Responsibilities." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 48.

Pegg, Scott. "Interposition and the Territorial Separation of Warring Forces: Time for a Rethink?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, May-June 1994, pp. 4-5.

Powaski, Ronald E. "United Nations and the Future of Global Peace." USA Today, Vol. 120, November 1991, pp. 19-20.

Ramsbotham, David. "UN Operations: The Art of the Possible." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, December 1993, pp. 25-30.

Rapuano, Kenneth. "Peace-Enforcement Operations." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, October 1993, pp. 17-20.

Rifkind, Malcolm. "Peacekeeping or Peacemaking? Implications and Prospects." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, April 1993, pp. 1-6.

Roberts, Adam. "The Crisis in UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 93-120.

Roberts, Adam. "The United Nations and International Security." Survival, Vol. 35, Summer 1993, pp. 3-30.

Rostow, Eugene V. "Is U.N. Peacekeeping a Growth Industry?" Joint Force Quarterly, No. 4, Spring 1994, pp. 100-105.

Ruggie, John G. "Wandering in the Void: Charting the U.N.'s New Strategic Role." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, November-December 1993, pp. 26-31.

Russett, Bruce, and Sutterlin, James S. "The U.N. in a New World Order." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, Spring 1991, pp. 69-83.

Samuels, Gertrude. "Peace Problems at the UN." New Leader, Vol. 76, 15-29 November 1993, pp. 13-14.

Samuels, Gertrude. "Second Chance for the United Nations." New Leader, Vol. 75, 7 September 1992, pp. 3-5.

"Shamed Are the Peacekeepers." Economist, Vol. 331, 30 April 1994, pp. 15-16.

UN peacekeeping forces.

Shultz, Richard H. "Peace Operations: Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Restoration-Assistance Missions." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 2-6.

Stiles, Kendall W., and MacDonald, MaryEllen. "After Consensus, What? Performance Criteria for the UN in the Post-Cold War Era." Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 29, August 1992, pp. 299-311.

Thakur, Ramesh. "The United Nations in a Changing World." Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, March 1993, pp. 7-20.

"The 38th Floor: An Agenda for Peace." UN Chronicle, Vol. 29, September 1992, pp. 2-4.

"The 38th Floor: Assembly Elaborates on _Agenda for Peace_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 2-3.

"The 38th Floor: Security Council Concludes _Agenda for Peace_ Meetings." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 2-3.

"The 38th Floor: Security Council Considers _An Agenda for Peace_ Proposals." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 2-3.

Toscano, Roberto. "Peacekeeping in the New International Situation." International Spectator, Vol. 28, January-March 1993, pp. 47-60

"The United Nations: Heart of Gold, Limbs of Clay." Economist, Vol. 327, 12 June 1993, pp. 21-24.

"UN Operations: Not Only Expanding, But Breaking New Ground." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 42-45.

"United Nations Peacekeeping." Economist, Vol. 331, 25 June 1994, pp. 19-22.

Urquhart, Brian. "Beyond the _Sheriff's Posse_." Survival, Vol. 32, May-June 1990, pp. 196-205.

Urquhart, Brian. "An Interview: The Man in the Middle." Interview by Lance Morrow. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 48-51.

Urquhart, Brian. "The United Nations in 1992: Problems and Opportunities." International Affairs, Vol. 68, April 1992, pp. 311-319.

Watson, Russell. "Perils of Peacekeeping." Newsweek, Vol. 121, 15 February 1993, pp. 34-35.

Weiss, Thomas G. "New Challenges for UN Military Operations: Implementing an Agenda for Peace." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 16, Winter 1993, pp. 51-66.

Weiss, Thomas G. "UN Military Operations After the Cold War: Some Conceptual Problems." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 5-9.

White, Nigel D. "U.N. Peacekeeping-Development or Destruction?" International Relations, Vol. 12, April 1994, pp. 129-158.

Whitman, Jim, and Bartholomew, Ian. "Collective Control of UN Peace Support Operations: A Policy Proposal." Security Dialogue, Vol. 25, March 1994, pp. 77-92.

NATIONAL VIEWS ON PEACEKEEPING:

PERSPECTIVES, GUIDELINES, AND POLICIES

UNITED STATES

Books and Documents

American Society of International Law. International Legal Materials. Vol. 33, No. 3. Washington: May 1994. (JX68 .A6 May 1994)

Pp. 795-813: "United States: Administration Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations."

Pp. 814-820: "United States: Department of Defense Statement on Peacekeeping."

Pp. 821-829: "United States: Department of State Statement on the Legal Authority for UN Peace Operations."

Argersinger, Steven J. Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and the United States. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 1 May 1991. 36pp. (AD-A236-617)

Aspin, Les. Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Posture Statement. Washington: US Department of Defense, January 1994. 1 vol. Pp. 64-75: "Democracy and Peacekeeping." (UA23 .A51 1994 A45)

Aspin, Les. Report on the Bottom-Up Review. Washington: US Department of Defense, October 1993. 109pp. (UA23.3 .A762 1993)

Pp. 8-9: "Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and Other Intervention Operations."

P. 75: "Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Operations."

Clinton, William J. The Clinton Administration's Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. Washington: May 1994. 15pp. (JX1981 .P7C55 1994)

Executive Summary of Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Clinton, William J. A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Washington: White House, July 1994. 29pp. Pp. 13-14: "Peace Operations." (UA10.5 .U659 1994)

Fennell, G. Keith. The United States' Role in Peacekeeping Operations in the New World Order. Research Report. Maxwell Air Force Base: US Air University, Air War College, April 1992. Microfiche, 20pp. (Micro. Rm. UG635.3 .U5 RR-92 F25)

Holmes, Kim R., ed. A Safe and Prosperous America: A U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy Blueprint. 2d ed. Washington: Heritage Foundation, June 1994. 83pp. Pp. 72-75: "The Pentagon and Peacekeeping." (E885 .S23 1994)

Keenan, Leo E., III. United States Peacekeeping Operations: The Need for Policy and Procedures. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 31 March 1993. 33pp. (AD-A263-545)

Kohler, Jeffrey B. Peace-Enforcement: Mission, Strategy, and Doctrine. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1993. 58pp. (U415 .A42 93 K64)

Lewis, Leviticus A. Collective Security vs. U.S. Defense Policy. Newport: US Naval War College, June 1993. 62pp. (V420 .L49 1993)

Lowenthal, Mark M. Peacekeeping in Future U.S. Foreign Policy. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 10 May 1994. 43pp. (JX1981 .P7L61 1994)

Magyar, Karl P., ed. Challenge and Response: Anticipating US Military Security Concerns. Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University Press, August 1994. 431pp. Pp. 259-276: "Supporting United Nations and Regional Peacekeeping Efforts," by James S. Corum. (UG633 .C49 1994)

Mott, William H., IV. Keeping Peacekeeping Operations in Perspective. Landpower Essay Series No. 94-6. Arlington: Association of the United States Army, Institute of Land Warfare, 1994. 7pp. (UA23 .A95L15 94-6)

Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Jr., and Shultz, Richard H., Jr., eds. Ethnic Conflict and Regional Instability: Implications for US Policy and Army Roles and Missions. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1994. 359pp. (U413 .A66E85 1994)

Pp. 105-109: "US Support for UN Peacekeeping Operations," by Richard A. Clarke.

Pp. 241-247: "Military Support for Peacekeeping Operations," by Barry McCaffrey.

Rubel, John P. Employment of U.S. Forces as Part of Mandated United Nations Peacekeeping and Peacemaking Operations. Newport: US Naval War College, Department of Operations, 10 March 1993. 28pp. (V420 .R82 1993)

Smith, Hugh, ed. Peacekeeping: Challenges for the Future. Canberra: Australian Defence Force Academy, Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1993. 229pp. Pp. 139-144: "The US Army Approach to Peacekeeping Support Operations," by Robert L. Ord, III. (JX1981 .P7S56 1993)

Snow, Donald M. Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peace-Enforcement: The U.S. Role in the New International Order. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, February 1993. 40pp. (U413 .A66S63 1993)

Taylor, Clarence E. Does the Army Have a Peacekeeping Doctrine for the 1990's. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1992. 64pp. (U415 .A42 92 T19)

US Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights. U.S. Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Activities. Hearings, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993. 136pp. (CIS Microfiche 1994 H381-45)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Coalition Defense and Reinforcing Forces. International Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement. Hearing, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993. 74pp. (CIS Microfiche 1994 S201-8)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-5: Operations. Washington: 14 June 1993. P. 13-7: "Peacekeeping Operations." (Mil. Pubs.)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-20: Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. Washington: 5 December 1990. Pp. 4-1 to 4-10: "Peacekeeping Operations." (Mil. Pubs.)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-23: Peace Operations. Washington: 30 December 1994. 131pp. (Mil. Pubs.)

US Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Pub 3-07.3: Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Peacekeeping Operations. Washington: 29 April 1994. (Mil. Pubs.)

Periodical Articles

"Administration Policy Decisions on Peacekeeping Operations." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5, July-August 1994, pp. 72-77, 80.

Albright, Madeleine K. "Myths of Peace-Keeping." US Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, 28 June 1993, pp. 464-467.

US role in UN peacekeeping.

Albright, Madeleine K.; Lake, Anthony; and Clark, Wesley. "The Clinton Administration's Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations." US Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 16 May 1994, pp. 315-321.

Also in DISAM Journal, Vol. 16, Summer 1994, pp. 42-54.

Arnold, David, and Mitchum, Albert. "A Note on the United Nations' Best Laid Plans: Now What?" Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, Vol. 22, November-December 1994, pp. 10-11.

Review of Boutros-Ghali's early era and the possible US posture toward future UN activities.

Atkins, Arthur G. "New Presidential Directive Gives U.S. Peacekeeping Guidelines." Arms Control Today, Vol. 24, June 1994, p. 26.

About Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Barnes, Fred. "Low Priority for UN Peace Operations." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 21, August-September 1994, pp. 28-29.

Summary of President Clinton's directive concerning support of UN peace operations.

Bennet, Douglas, Jr. "Peace-Keeping and Multilateral Relations in U.S. Foreign Policy." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 5 December 1994, pp. 808-810.

Berdal, Mats R. "Fateful Encounter: The United States and UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Spring 1994, pp. 30-50.

Bloomfield, Lincoln P. "Policing World Disorder." World Monitor, Vol. 6, February 1993, pp. 34-37.

US moving away from go-it-alone ventures.

Cimbala, Stephen J. "Military Persuasion and the American Way of War." Strategic Review, Vol. 22, Fall 1994, pp. 33-43.

"Clinton Calls for Honest Look at U.N.'s Global Challenges." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol. 51, 2 October 1993, pp. 2679-2682.

Text of President Clinton's address to the UN General Assembly on 27 September 1993.

Clinton, William J. "Peacekeeping Operations." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 18 April 1994, pp. 816-817.

Exchange with reporters on 14 April 1994.

Clinton, William J. "Remarks to the 48th Session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, September 27, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 4 October 1993, pp. 1901-1908.

Cowin, Andrew J. "Expanding United Nations Peacekeeping Role Poses Risk for America." Backgrounder, No. 917, 13 October 1992, entire issue.

Includes chart, "History of U.N. Peacekeeping Operations," pp. 5-6.

Curtis, Willie. "The Inevitable Slide into Coercive Peacemaking: The US Role in the New World Order." Defense Analysis, Vol. 10, December 1994, pp. 305-321.

Doherty, Carroll J. "United Nations' Newfound Muscle Relieves, Worries Washington." Cover Story. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol. 51, 6 March 1993, pp. 525-529.

Eikenberry, Karl W. "The Challenges of Peacekeeping." Army, Vol. 43, September 1993, pp. 14-20.

Issues surrounding US participation in peacekeeping missions.

Elliott, Michael. "High Hurdles and Low Moans." Newsweek, Vol. 122, 11 October 1993, p. 39.

US involvement in peacekeeping.

Hillen, John F., III. "Peacekeeping Is Hell: America Unlearns the Lessons of Vietnam." Policy Review, No. 66, Fall 1993, pp. 36-39.

Hitchens, Theresa. "Clinton Redirects Peacekeeping Policy." Defense News, Vol. 9, 7-13 February 1994, pp. 4, 45.

Hitchens, Theresa. "U.S. Doubts Ability of U.N. to Conduct Peacekeeping." Defense News, Vol. 8, 8-14 November 1993, pp. 3, 34.

Isaacs, John. "A Confederation of Caution." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 50, July-August 1994, pp. 14-15.

Discusses President Clinton's peacekeeping guidelines.

Kirschten, Dick. "Missions Impossible." National Journal, Vol. 25, 30 October 1993, pp. 2576-2580.

Growing US reluctance to participate in UN peacekeeping missions.

Levin, Carl. "Restoring the Vision: A Presidential Directive Enhances the Role of the United Nations." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 132, August 1994, p. 47.

Focuses on President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Linn, Thomas C. "U.S. Forces in Peacekeeping Operations: Implications for Force Planning." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Fall 1993, pp. 72-77.

Matthews, William. "Clinton's Vow: No More Open-Ended Peace Operations for the U.S." Army Times, 23 May 1994, p. 26.

Matthews, William. "Peacekeeping: A Hard Look at a Noble Experiment." Air Force Times, 3 January 1994, pp. 10-11.

Matthews, William. "U.S. Changes the Rules: Its Involvement in Peacekeeping Is Likely to Decline." Air Force Times, 23 May 1994, p. 38.

Matthews, William. "U.S. Plans to Reduce Peacekeeping Role." Air Force Times, 2 May 1994, p. 37.

Matthews, William. "U.S. Tempers Its Policy on Peacekeeping." Air Force Times, 28 February 1994, p. 11.

Morrison, David C. "Wanted: Peacekeeping Policy." National Journal, Vol. 25, 27 November 1993, p. 2859.

US role in UN peacekeeping missions.

"Mr. Clinton at the UN." National Review, Vol. 45, 18 October 1993, pp. 18-19.

Discusses the President's address on 27 September 1993.

Olsen, Edward A., and Winterford, David. "Asian Multilateralism: Implications for US Policy." Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. 6, Summer 1994, pp. 9-40.

Peck, Steven. "US Peacekeeping Policy: An Update." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, January-February 1994, pp. 10-11.

Phillips-Beaudan, Eric. "Peacekeeping Woes." Retired Officer, Vol. 50, July 1994, pp. 36-42. Recent failures in Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda are forcing the US to reexamine its role in future UN peacekeeping operations.

Rodman, Peter W. "Declarations of Dependence?" National Review, Vol. 46, 13 June 1994, pp. 32-34.

Focuses on President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Roos, John G. "The Perils of Peacekeeping: Tallying the Costs in Blood, Coin, Prestige, and Readiness." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 133, December 1993, pp. 13-17.

US involvement in peace-related activities.

Ruggie, John G. "Peacekeeping and U.S. Interests." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 17, Autumn 1994, pp. 175-184.

Sewall, John O.B. "Implications for U.N. Peacekeeping." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 3, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 29-33.

US involvement in UN peacekeeping.

"The Shifting Priorities of U.S. Foreign Policy; Peacekeeping Downgraded." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, January-April 1994, pp. 43-58.

Selected official statements and documents focusing on US role in UN peacekeeping missions.

Starr, Barbara. "USA Urges Six-Point Peacekeeping Plan." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 28 May 1994, p. 8.

"Statement by the Press Secretary on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations, May 5, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 9 May 1994, p. 998.

Regarding President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Summers, Harry G., Jr. "U.S. Participation in U.N. Peacekeeping Organizations." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Fall 1993, pp. 69-72.

Statement before Congress, 21 September 1993.

Thiesen, Bruce. "U.N. Peacekeeping Wrongly Endangers Our Troops." American Legion, Vol. 135, December 1993, pp. 10, 64.

Wisner, Frank G. "Peacekeeping: Why, When, How & How Long?" Defense 93, No. 6, 1993, pp. 23-27.

Based on a prepared statement to the Coalition Defense and Reinforcing Forces Subcom-mittee, Senate Armed Services Committee, 14 July 1993.Also in Defense Issues, Vol. 8, No. 46, 1993, entire issue.

Wittes, Benjamin. "The Politics of Peacekeeping." New Leader, Vol. 77, 9-23 May 1994, pp. 10-11.

Discusses Presidential Decision Directive 25.

OTHER COUNTRIES AND REGIONS

Books and Documents

Atzinger, Hans-Georg. Emerging German Security Policy: The Dispute on "Out of Area" Employments. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 10 March 1992. 42pp. (AD-A249-597)

Jockel, Joseph T. Canada and International Peacekeeping. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1994. 83pp. (JX1981 .P7J58 1994)

Orr, M.J. The Russian Army and Peacekeeping. Camberley, UK: Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Conflict Studies Research Centre, June 1994. 11pp. (U520 .R1 1994 O66)

Smith, Hugh, ed. Peacekeeping: Challenges for the Future. Canberra: Australian Defence Force Academy, Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1993. 229pp. (JX1981 .P7S56 1993)

Pp. 123-126: "The Fijian Perspective on Participation in UN Operations," by J.K. Konrote.

Pp. 127-130: "The Indonesian Perspective on Participation in UN Operations," by E.E. Mangindaan.

Pp. 131-134: "Singapore's Perspective on Participation in UN Operations," by Low Y. Kah.

Pp. 135-137: "Thailand's Perspective on Participation in UN Operations," by Pinit Suksaichol.

US Army Training and Doctrine Command. Looking to the Future: TRADOC's 20th Anniversary Seminar on Future Warfare. Fort Monroe: 1993. 74pp. Pp. 36-42: "Peacekeeping: A Canadian Perspective," by Ian Douglas. (U153 .L66 1993)

Zaccor, Albert M. Polish Peacekeepers and Their Training (or Training Poland's Blue Berets). Fort Leavenworth: Foreign Military Studies Office, August 1993. 6pp. (U520 .R1 1993 Z116)

Periodical Articles

Allison, Roy. "Russian Peacekeeping-Capabilities and Doctrine." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 6, December 1994, pp. 544-547.

Crow, Suzanne. "Russia Promotes the CIS as an International Organization." RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 3, 18 March 1994, pp. 33-38.

Partially to legitimize peacekeeping operations in the former Soviet Union.

Crow, Suzanne. "Russian Peacekeeping: Defense, Diplomacy, or Imperialism?" RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 1, 18 September 1992, pp. 37-40.

De Briganti, Giovanni. "South Africa Shies Away from Lead Peacekeeping Roles." Defense News, Vol. 9, 28 November-4 December 1994, p. 14.

Delvoie, Louis A. "Canada and Peacekeeping: A New Era?" Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 20, Autumn 1990, pp. 9-14.

Fic, Victor. "Geopolitical Implications of Japan's PKO Law." Asian Defence Journal, No. 1, January 1993, pp. 126-131.

Law allows Japanese Self-Defence Forces to participate in UN peacekeeping operations.

Fic, Victor. "The Japanese PKO Bill." Asian Defence Journal, No. 11, November 1992, pp. 28-33.

Enables Japan's participation in UN peacekeeping operations.

George, Aurelia. "Japan's Participation in U.N. Peacekeeping Operations." Asian Survey, Vol. 33, June 1993, pp. 560-575.

Greene, James M. "The Peacekeeping Doctrines of the CIS [Commonwealth of Independent States]." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 5, April 1993, pp. 156-159.

Grey, J.C. "The Australian Army View." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 19-20, June-July 1993, p. 8.

Of peacemaking and peacekeeping.

Guillot, Philippe. "France, Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Intervention." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 30-43.

James, N.F. "A Brief History of Australian Peacekeeping." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 3-18.

Johansen, Robert C. "Japan as a Military Power? Why Its a Bad Idea." Christian Century, Vol. 110, 5 May 1993, pp. 476-477.

Kim, Andrew H.N. "Japan and Peacekeeping Operations." Military Review, Vol. 74, April 1994, pp. 22-33.

Kinkel, Klaus. "Peacekeeping Missions: Germany Can Now Play Its Part." NATO Review, Vol. 42, October 1994, pp. 3-4, 6-7.

Kozyrev, Andrei. "Russia's Peacemaking: There Are No Easy Solutions." New Times International, No. 4, January 1994, pp. 16-18.

Kuiper, Marcus A. "Keeping the Peace: Reflections on the Rules of the Game for International Intervention in the 1990s." Journal of Slavic Military Studies, Vol. 6, December 1993, pp. 562-575.

See especially pp. 565-569: "Russia Reasserts Her Interest."

Kummel, Gerhard. "UN Overstretch: A German Perspective." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 160-178.

Lagunina, Irina. "Russian Peace-Keeping Troops-In the CIS and Abroad." New Times International, No. 48, November 1993, pp. 25-26.

Lanxade, Jacques. "French Defence Policy After the White Paper." RUSI Journal, Vol. 139, April 1994, pp. 17-21.

Based on a presentation to the Institute, 3 March 1994.

Markus, Ustina. "Ukraine and the Yugoslav Conflict." RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 2, 23 July 1993, pp. 36-41.

Orr, Michael. "Peacekeeping-A New Task for Russian Military Doctrine." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 6, July 1994, pp. 307-309.

Includes box entitled "Current Russian Deployment of Peacekeeping Forces."

Orr, Michael. "Peacekeeping and Overstretch in the Russian Army." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 6, August 1994, pp. 363-365.

Rae, Marion. "Peacekeeping: A Minor Determinant of Australia's Force Structure?" Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 92-98.

Richardson, Michael. "Japan's Peacekeeping Dilemma." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 19, April-May 1993, p. 28.

Saracino, Peter. "Keeping the Peace: How One Country Meets Its Commitments." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, p. 369.

Canada.

Shashenkov, Maxim. "Russian Peacekeeping in the _Near Abroad_." Survival, Vol. 36, October 1994, pp. 46-69.

Shichor, Yitzhak. "China and the Role of the United Nations in the Middle East: Revised Policy." Asian Survey, Vol. 31, March 1991, pp. 255-269.

"Spain's Blue Berets." International Defense Review, Vol. 24, January 1991, pp. 19-21.

Thompson, Graham N. "The Polish Role in UN Peacekeeping Forces." Jane's Soviet Intelligence Review, Vol. 2, January 1990, pp. 2-4.

Thranert, Oliver. "Germans Battle Over Blue Helmets." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 48, October 1992, pp. 33-35.

Tigner, Brooks. "Peacekeeping Strains Norwegian Budget, Will: White Paper Suggests Cap on Troop Strength." Defense News, Vol. 9, 6-12 June 1994, pp. 3, 44.

Toshihiro, Yamauchi. "Gunning for Japan's Peace Constitution." Japan Quarterly, Vol. 39, April-June 1992, pp. 159-167.

Waters, Gary. "The Light Blue Line in the Thin Blue Wedge: The RAAF and Peacekeeping." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 41-48.

Light blue line indicates the Royal Australian Air Force; thin blue wedge indicates a UN peacekeeping force between two combatants.

Yeltsin, Boris N. "Peace Keeping Burden in the Former Soviet Union Lies Upon the Russian Federation: A Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 61, 15 October 1994, pp. 5-8.

Yoshitaka, Sasaki. "Japan's Undue International Contribution." Japan Quarterly, Vol. 40, June-September 1993, pp. 259-265.

PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS AROUND THE WORLD, PAST AND PRESENT

MAPS AND LISTS

"Better There Than Not." Map. Economist, Vol. 331, 30 April 1994, p. 52. (Periodical)

Dated March 1994, this UN map includes number of troops, annual cost, and date sent.

"Current Peacekeeping Operations." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, November-December 1994, p. 19. (Periodical)

Includes UN map dated June 1994.

"Embattled." Map. Economist, Vol. 331, 25 June 1994, p. 19. (Periodical)

Includes number of people, mission beginning date, and annual cost as of 31 May 1994.

International Institute for Strategic Studies. The Military Balance, 1994-1995. London: 1994. 287pp. Pp. 268-277: "Peacekeeping Operations." (UA15 .I5 1994)

Provides missions, strength, cost, composition for various peacekeeping operations.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 53-61: "Appendix 1A: International Observer and Peacekeeping Operations, 1993," by Paul Claesson. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

"Summary of Personnel Contributions to UN Peacekeeping Operations by Countries." Table. Regular feature in each bi-monthly issue of Peacekeeping & International Relations. (Periodical)

"UN Peace-Keeping: Around the World." Map. UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 40-41. (Periodical)

"UN Peacekeeping Operations 1948 to Present." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 27-29. (Periodical)

Appendix to "Putting the Peace Back into Peacekeeping: Theory Must Inform Practice," by A.B. Fetherston.

US Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. Worldwide Peacekeeping Operations, 1994. Washington: February 1994. 1 folded map. (JX1981 .P7W56 1994)

AFRICA

Books and Documents

Dada, Carl A. Need for Organization of African Unity to Develop a Peacekeeping Capability. Research Report. Maxwell Air Force Base: US Air University, Air War College, 1990. 52pp. (UG635.3 .U5 RR-90 D12)

On the African continent.

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 4: "Peacekeeping in Africa." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Rikhye, Indar J. Military Adviser to the Secretary-General: U.N. Peacekeeping and the Congo Crisis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 355pp. (JX1981 .P7R527 1992)

Smock, David R., ed. Making War and Waging Peace: Foreign Intervention in Africa. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1993. 290pp. Pp. 263-269: "Strengthening African Peacemaking and Peacekeeping," by Chester A. Crocker. (DT30.5 .M26 1993)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Withdrawal of U.S. Troops from Somalia: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: 9 June 1994. 11pp. (UA16 .U531 1994)

Periodical Articles

Alao, Abiodun. "ECOMOG [Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group]

in Liberia-The Anaemic Existence of a Mission." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 5, September 1993, pp. 429-431.

Alexander, Ian. "There Oughta Be a Law." National Journal, Vol. 46, 7 February 1994, pp. 32-33.

Some lessons from US involvement in Somalia.

Allen, Glen. "Under Suspicion: The Deaths of Two Somalis Cast a Cloud Over Canada's Reputation as a Peacekeeper." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 3 May 1993, pp. 28-29.

Anstee, Margaret J. "Angola: The Forgotten Tragedy: A Test Case for U.N. Peacekeeping." International Relations, Vol. 11, December 1993, pp. 495-511.

Antal, John F., and Dunaway, Robert L. "Peacemaking in Somalia: A Background Brief." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, February 1993, pp. 38-43.

Arnold, S.L. "Somalia: An Operation Other Than War." Military Review, Vol. 73, December 1993, pp. 26-35.

Arnold, S.L., and Stahl, David T. "A Power Projection Army in Operations Other Than War." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 4-26.

Somalia.

Auster, Bruce B. "Fighting a New Kind of War: Off the Coast of Somalia, Marines Learn to Become Peacekeepers." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 115, 8 November 1993, pp. 59-60.

Baroni, Claudia. "The Italian Participation in UNITAF [UN Unified Task Force] and UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia]." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, July-August 1993, pp. 3-4.

Bartholet, Jeffrey. "The Road to Hell." Newsweek, Vol. 120, 21 September 1992, pp. 52-57.

Somalia.

Bergman, Brian, and Fisher, Luke. "A Night of Terror." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 28 March 1994, pp. 26-28.

Detailed account of death and torture of Somali teenager by a member of the Canadian peacekeeping force.

Bilski, Andrew. "On the Attack: UN Peacekeepers Retaliate Against a Somali Warlord Blamed for the Deaths of 23 Pakistani Soldiers." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 28 June 1993, pp. 18-19.

Bolton, John R. "Wrong Turn in Somalia." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, January-February 1994, pp. 56-66.

"Breakthrough Reported After Maputo Talks: ONUMOZ [UN Operation in Mozambique] Mandate Renewed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 57.

Clarke, Walter S. "Testing the World's Resolve in Somalia." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 42-58.

Clinton, William J. "Address to the Nation on Somalia, October 7, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 11 October 1993, pp. 2022-2025.

Clinton, William J. "Exchange with Reporters Prior to a Meeting with Congressional Leaders, September 28, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 4 October 1993, pp. 1913-1914.

Bosnia and Somalia.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on Somalia, July 1, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 5 July 1993, pp. 1216-1217.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on the Situation in Somalia, June 10, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 14 June 1993, pp. 1060-1061.

Clinton, William J. "Message to the Congress Transmitting a Report on Somalia, October 13, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 18 October 1993, pp. 2065-2066.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

Crigler, T. Frank. "The Peace-Enforcement Dilemma." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 64-70.

Somalia.

DaCosta, Peter. "Combining Against Conflict." Africa Report, Vol. 37, September-October 1992, pp. 21-26.

Discusses Organization of African Unity's role of peacekeeper in Africa.

Dallaire, Romeo. "Making a Difference: A Canadian General Completes His Duty." Interview. Maclean's, Vol. 107, 19 September 1994, p. 32.

Head of UN peacekeeping mission in Rwanda.

"Deteriorating Security Situation Continues: UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda] Mandate Extended." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, June 1994, pp. 4-6.

Diehl, Paul F., and Jurado, Sonia R. "United Nations Election Supervision in South Africa: Lessons from the Namibian Peacekeeping Experience." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 16, January-March 1993, pp. 61-74.

Doyle, Mark. "A Dangerous Place." Africa Report, Vol. 38, November-December 1993, pp. 38-45.

Somalia.

Durch, William J. "Building on Sand: UN Peacekeeping in the Western Sahara." International Security, Vol. 17, Spring 1993, pp. 151-171.

Erasmus, Chris. "Trouble in the Ranks: Problems Plague a Multiracial Peacekeeping Force." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 28 February 1994, p. 32.

South Africa.

Fisher, Luke. "Brutal Allegations: A Canadian Peacekeeper Stands Trial for Murder." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 7 March 1994, pp. 13-14.

Somalia.

Fleischman, Janet. "An Uncivil War." Africa Report, Vol. 38, May-June 1993, pp. 56-59. Liberia.

"_Fundamental Review_ of UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Follows Violence." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 51-54.

Garcia, Elroy. "Violence in Somalia." Soldiers, Vol. 48, August 1993, pp. 6-7.

Gibbs, David N. "Dag Hammarskjold, the United Nations, and the Congo Crisis of 1960-1: A Reinterpretation." Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 31, March 1993, pp. 163-174.

Gibbs, Nancy. "Why? The Killing Fields of Rwanda." Cover Story. Time, Vol. 143, 16 May 1994, pp. 56-63.

Gilkes, Patrick. "From Peace-Keeping to Peace Enforcement: The Somalia Precedent." Middle East Report, No. 185, November-December 1993, pp. 21-24.

Gordon, I.C. "Australians in Western Sahara." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 83-85.

Hammer, Joshua. "Deeper Into the Abyss." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 25 April 1994, pp. 32-33.

Civil war in Rwanda.

Hammer, Joshua. "Inside a War Zone: _The Situation Is Desperate_." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 20 June 1994, pp. 44-46.

Rwanda.

Hammer, Joshua. "The Killing Fields." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 23 May 1994, pp. 46-47.

Genocide in Rwanda.

Hayden, H. Thomas. "Somalia-What Went Wrong?" Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 50-52.

Hoar, Joseph P. "A CINC's Perspective." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 56-63.

US Central Command's Commander-in-Chief's survey of Somalia.

Houdek, Robert. "Statement by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Robert Houdek, February 17, 1993." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 3, May-June 1993, pp. 44-45.

Somalia.

Huband, Mark. "The Politics of Violence." Africa Report, Vol. 38, September-October 1993, pp. 13-19.

Somalia.

Huband, Mark. "When Yankee Goes Home." Africa Report, Vol. 38, March-April 1993, pp. 20-23.

Somalia.

Hume, Brit. "The Making of a Quagmire." National Review, Vol. 45, 1 November 1993, pp. 21-22.

Somalia.

Hurley, D.J. "OPERATION SOLACE." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 29-33.

Australia's contribution to the US-led humanitarian relief operation in Somalia.

Isaacs, Dan. "Watching and Waiting." Africa Report, Vol. 38, July-August 1993, pp. 40-43.

Mozambique.

James, Alan. "The Congo Controversies." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 44-58.

Jeffery, M.K. "The United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) Namibia." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 20, June 1991, pp. 7-11.

Jespersen, David M. "Coalition Logistics in Somalia." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, April 1994, pp. 32-34.

Knigge, Timothy M. "LNOing [US liaison officer teams in Somalia] United Nations Style." Field Artillery, August 1994, pp. 26-28.

"Leaders Asked to Put Peace Process Back on Track." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 21-23.

Angola.

Lechowich, Richard A. "FORLORN HOPE: U.S. Military Operations in Somalia, 1993-94." Strategy & Tactics, No. 170, September-October 1994, pp. 65-74.

Leitenberg, Milton. "Rwanda, 1994: International Incompetence Produces Genocide." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, November-December 1994, pp. 6-10.

Lorenz, F.M. "Law and Anarchy in Somalia." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 27-41.

Makinda, Samuel M. "Somalia: From Humanitarian Intervention to Military Offensive?" World Today, Vol. 49, October 1993, pp. 184-186.

Malik, Kenan. "Good and Evil Blur in Somalia." World Press Review, Vol. 40, October 1993, pp. 17-18.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Masland, Tom. "The Pitfalls of Peacekeeping." Newsweek, Vol. 122, 26 July 1993, pp. 32-33.

Somalia.

"Massacres, _Mindless Violence and Carnage_ Rage in Rwanda: Council Expands UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda] Mandate, Imposes Arms Embargo." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 15-20.

Matthews, William. "Waging Peace: Somalia Offers Lessons for a New Kind of Military Mission." Air Force Times, 1 November 1993, pp. 12-13.

Meisler, Stanley. "Crisis in Katanga." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 70-80.

Michael, Stephen. "CSS [Combat Service Support] Operations in Somalia." Infantry, Vol. 84, July-August 1994, pp. 29-33.

Moreno, Rafael, and Vega, Juan J. "Lessons from Somalia." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, May-June 1994, pp. 11-12.

Morrice, A.J. "The Mogadishu Express: HMAS Jervis Bay's Contribution to OPERATION SOLACE." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 87-91.

Somalia.

"Negotiations in Lusaka Begin: Further Sanctions Postponed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 56.

Angola.

"New UN Operation to Oversee Troop Withdrawal, Elections." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, p. 24.

Mozambique.

"New, Wider UN Mission to Monitor Ongoing Peace Process." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 53.

Rwanda.

Oakley, Robert B. "An Envoy's Perspective." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 44-55.

President Clinton's Special Envoy for Somalia.

Oakley, Robert B. "Somalia Lessons Invaluable for U.S. and U.N." Army Times, 4 April 1994, p. 33.

Oladimeji, Olutunde A. "Behold, African Peacekeepers." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 119, March 1993, pp. 64-66.

"OPERATION RESTORE HOPE." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 13-16.

Somalia.

Page, M.B. "Somalia: Background and Prospects." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, October 1993, pp. 6-14.

Peterson, G. "Human Intelligence and Somalia-A Cost Effective Winner for a Small Army." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 35-37.

Peterson, G. "Psyops and Somalia-Spreading Good News." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 38-40.

Pfeiffer, Tom. "U.S. Hands Over Somali Mission to New UN Peacekeeping Force." Arms Control Today, Vol. 23, June 1993, pp. 28, 34.

Phillips, Andrew. "A Few Bad Men." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 28 March 1994, pp. 24-25.

Death and torture of Somali teenager by a member of the Canadian peacekeeping force.

"Progress Towards National Reconciliation Reported: Mandate of UNAVEM II [UN Angola Verification Mission] Extended." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, June 1994, pp. 7-8.

"The Real News from Somalia-And It's Good." Economist, Vol. 329, 9 October 1993, pp. 43-44.

"Refugee Flows, Border Tension Spark Early UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda] Deployment." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 59.

"Rwanda's Agony: Can Horrors Be Prevented?" Cover Story. World Press Review, Vol. 41, September 1994, pp. 10-15.

Ryan, Henry B. "A New Diplomacy." Government Executive, Vol. 25, February 1993, pp. 36-38.

Somalia.

Sesay, Amadu. "The Limits of Peace-Keeping by a Regional Organization: The OAU [Organization of African Unity] Peace-Keeping Force in Chad." Conflict Quarterly, Vol. 11, Winter 1991, pp. 7-26.

"Security Council Establishes New UN Operation in Somalia." UN Chronicle, Vol. 29, September 1992, pp. 13-15.

Shepherd, Anne. "Keeping the Peace." Africa Report, Vol. 38, July-August 1993, pp. 56-59.

South Africa.

Shepherd, Anne. "Vetting the Vote." Africa Report, Vol. 38, November-December 1993, pp. 22-25.

South Africa.

"Somalia: After Clinton's Boys Go Home." Economist, Vol. 330, 5 February 1994, pp. 38-43.

"Somalia Policy Debate: Walk, Don't Run, to the Nearest Exit, August 27-October 7, 1993." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, November-December 1993, pp. 17-35.

"Somalia: The End of the Chapter." Economist, Vol. 331, 2 April 1994, pp. 42-44.

"Somalia: What Went Wrong." Cover Story. U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 115, 18 October 1993, pp. 30-37.

Stearns, Scott. "The OAU's [Organization of African Unity] Peace-Keepers." Africa Report, Vol. 39, January-February 1994, p. 35.

Steele, Scott. "Eye of the Storm." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 6 June 1994, pp. 58-59.

About Canadian Major General Romeo Dallaire in Rwanda.

Stevenson, Jonathan. "Hope Restored in Somalia?" Foreign Policy, No. 91, Summer 1993, pp. 138-154.

"Support for October 1994 Elections Asked: ONUMOZ [UN Operation in Mozambique] Mandate Renewed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 24.

"30,000-Strong UN Force Steps in to _Restore Hope_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, June 1993, pp. 13-17.

Somalia.

Thomas, Evan. "Playing Globocop." Newsweek, Vol. 121, 28 June 1993, pp. 20-24.

Somalia.

"UN Operation in Full Swing; Force of 6,000 Deployed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 25-26.

Mozambique.

"UN Peace-Keepers to Monitor Cease-Fire, Elections; Coordinate Humanitarian Aid." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 52.

Liberia.

"U.N. Security Council Resolution Concerning UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia], March 26, 1993." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 3, May-June 1993, pp. 45-48.

"U.N. Troops, Strongly Supported by U.S. Forces, Respond to Attacks by Followers of Somali Warlord." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, July-August 1993, pp. 26-28.

"UNOMIL [UN Observer Mission in Liberia] Fully Deployed, Elections Delayed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 55.

"UNOSOM [UN Operation in Somalia] Objectives Affirmed, Despite Continuing Violence." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 24-27.

"UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Mandate Renewed, Humanitarian Aspect Stressed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 21-23.

"UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Takes _Decisive Action_ to Restore Peace: Killing of 24 Peace-Keepers Is Biggest Single UN Loss Ever." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 4-7.

Venter, Al. "Testing the Waters: United Nations Operation in Somalia Leads the Way Towards More African _Rescue Missions_." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 360-363.

Vowels, Lawrence G., and Witsken, Jeffrey R. "Peacekeeping with Light Cavalry." Armor, Vol. 103, September-October 1994, pp. 26-30.

10th Mountain Division's 3d Squadron, 17th Cavalry in Somalia.

Wallace, Bruce. "Too Few Good Men: An Inquiry Reveals Ugly Truths About Peacekeepers." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 13 September 1993, pp. 16-17.

White supremacist views of some Canadian peacekeepers.

"War and Order." Economist, Vol. 330, 15 January 1994, p. 40.

South African peacekeeping forces.

Wison, D.J. "Psychological Operations in Somalia." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 107, July-August 1994, pp. 35-42.

Wurst, Jim. "Mozambique Disarms." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 50, September-October 1994, pp. 36-39.

ASIA

Books and Documents

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 3: "Peacekeeping in South and Southeast Asia." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

Periodical Articles

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. "U.N. Military Civic Action in Cambodia." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, July 1994, pp. 12-18.

Akashi, Yasushi. "The Challenge of Peacekeeping in Cambodia." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 204-215.

Akashi, Yasushi. "To Build a New Country: The Task of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia." Harvard International Review, Vol. 15, Winter 1992-1993, pp. 34-35, 68-69.

Amer, Ramses. "The United Nations' Peacekeeping Operation in Cambodia: Overview and Assessment." Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 15, September 1993, pp. 211-231.

Ayling, S.H. "Communicators in Cambodia." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 19-27.

Bullion, Alan. "The Indian Peace-Keeping Force in Sri Lanka." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 148-159.

Chanda, Nayan. "UN Divisions." Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 155, 23 July 1992, pp. 8-9.

Signs of Franco-Australian rivalry within peacekeeping force in Cambodia.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

Dommen, Arthur J. "UN Bias and Cambodian Peace." Global Affairs, Vol. 7, Fall 1992, pp. 120-135.

Doyle, Michael W., and Suntharalingam, Nishkala. "The UN in Cambodia: Lessons for Complex Peacekeeping." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 117-147.

Evans, Gareth. "Lessons from Peace Keeping in Cambodia." Insight, Vol. 3, 12 September 1994, pp. 5-6, 14.

Evans, Gareth. "Peacekeeping in Cambodia: Lessons Learned." NATO Review, Vol. 42, August 1994, pp. 24-27.

Farris, Karl. "UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: On Balance, A Success." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 38-50.

Ghosh, Amitav. "Holiday in Cambodia: The U.N.'s Strategic Dead End." New Republic, Vol. 208, 28 June 1993, pp. 21-25.

Jennar, Raoul M. "UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia]: _International Triumph_ in Cambodia?" Security Dialogue, Vol. 25, June 1994, pp. 145-156.

Lizee, Pierre. "The Challenge of Conflict Resolution in Cambodia." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 35-44.

Mackinlay, John. "A Role for the Peacekeeper in Cambodia." RUSI Journal, Vol. 135, Autumn 1990, pp. 26-30.

"Mandate Ends, UN Presence Diminishes: Violence on Upswing." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 39.

Cambodia.

"Peace Process in Danger of Paralysis." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 25-27.

Cambodia.

Peang-Meth, Abdulgaffar. "The United Nations Peace Plan, the Cambodian Conflict, and the Future of Cambodia." Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 14, June 1992, pp. 33-46.

Pfeiffer, Tom. "UN Mission Reaches Milestone with Record Cambodian Vote." Arms Control Today, Vol. 23, July-August 1993, pp. 21, 28.

Pilger, John. "A Washing of Hands in Cambodia." New Statesman & Society, 29 October 1993, pp. 14-15.

Roberts, David. "Cambodia: Problems of a UN-Brokered Peace." World Today, Vol. 48, July 1992, pp. 129-132.

Saito, Jon. "UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia]: A Success Story?" Asian Defence Journal, No. 5, May 1993, pp. 20-28.

Thayer, Nate. "Shattered Peace." Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 156, 11 February 1993, pp. 10-11.

Cambodia.

Thomas, Trisha. "Into the Unknown: Can the United Nations Bring Peace to Cambodia?" Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 44, Winter 1991, pp. 495-515.

Tombes, Jonathan. "Cambodia: Lessons for UN Peacekeepers." American Enterprise, Vol. 5, May-June 1994, pp. 46-57.

"United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)." Asian Defence Journal, No. 4, April 1993, pp. 28-29.

"UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia] Mandate Ends: New Constitution, Government Welcomed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 16-18.

"UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia] Withdrawal Virtually Complete: Liaison Team Dispatched." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 71.

"Voter Registration a Success; Cease-Fire Violations Continue." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, June 1993, pp. 22-25.

Cambodia.

Wallace, Bruce. "Death Returns to the Killing Fields." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 1 March 1993, pp. 32-36.

Cambodia.

Ward, Don. "Getting a Handle on Peacekeeping: Cambodia Offers Lesson for Success in the Future." Navy Times, 14 March 1994, p. 29.

"What the United Nations Learnt in Cambodia." Economist, Vol. 327, 19 June 1993, p. 36.

Yusuf, Isaak. "The Final Phase of the Cambodian Peace Process." Asian Defence Journal, No. 4, April 1993, pp. 26-27, 30.

Yusuf, Isaak. "The United Nations Military Operation in Cambodia." Asian Defence Journal, No. 5, May 1993, pp. 6-19.

CENTRAL AMERICA

Books and Documents

Child, Jack. The Central American Peace Process, 1983-1991: Sheathing Swords, Building Confidence. Boulder: Rienner, 1992. 200pp. (F1439.5 .C525 1992)

Darling, Jonathan. The 1969 War Between El Salvador and Honduras: A Case Study in Central American Peace-Keeping. Unpublished paper presented to the XII Annual Conference of the Middle Atlantic Council on Latin American Studies (MACLAS), 20 April 1991. 44pp. (JX1523 .D37 1991)

Periodical Articles

Day, Graham M. "Naval Peacekeeping: A Practical Account." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, March-April 1993, pp. 5-6.

In Honduras and El Salvador.

Holiday, David, and Stanley, William. "Building the Peace: Preliminary Lessons from El Salvador." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 415-438.

Joly, John D. "ONUCA [UN Observer Group in Central America]-A Story of Success in the Quest for Peace." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 20, June 1991, pp. 12-19.

Neves, Juan C. "The Argentine Navy and United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations in the Gulf of Fonseca." Naval War College Review, Vol. 47, Winter 1994, pp. 40-67.

Olmstead, Lance. "Peacekeeping El Salvador." Sentinel, Vol. 29, August-September 1993, pp. 8-9.

"_Region of Peace_ Called For: El Salvador Elections Near." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 74.

EUROPE AND COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

Books and Documents

Finch, Raymond C., III. The Strange Case of Russian Peacekeeping Operations in the Near Abroad, 1992-1994. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Combined Arms Command, Foreign Military Studies Office, 1994. 31pp. (U415 .F5F35 1994)

Mosinski, David A. U.N. Peacekeeping in "Yugoslavia": Background, Analysis, and Lessons Learned. Thesis. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, 4 June 1993. 134pp. (U415 .A4 TH M67)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Situation in Bosnia and Appropriate U.S. and Western Responses. Hearing, 102d Cong., 2d Sess. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 11 August 1992. 85pp. (DR1313.3 .U53 1992)

Periodical Articles

Aikman, Bill. "Seven Days in Sarajevo." Military Engineer, Vol. 86, May 1994, pp. 7-9.

UN spokesperson for the UN Protection Forces Bosnia-Herzegovina Command.

Baev, Pavel K. "Peace-Keeping as a Challenge to European Borders." Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, June 1993, pp. 137-150.

Bell, William G. "Mission on the Morgan Line." Army, Vol. 44, July 1994, pp. 20-27.

Peacekeeping mission on the Italo-Yugoslav border in the 1940s.

Berkowitz, Bruce D. "Rules of Engagement for U.N. Peacekeeping Forces in Bosnia." Orbis, Vol. 38, Fall 1994, pp. 635-646.

Bilski, Andrew. "Peace in the Balance." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 10 May 1993, pp. 18-20.

Situation in the former Yugoslavia.

"Bosnia." Economist, Vol. 330, 26 February 1994, pp. 19-22.

"Bosnia-Herzegovina: To the Brink of Stronger Action-And Back." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, July-August 1993, pp. 2-25.

Pp. 19-25: "Selected U.N. Security Council Resolutions on Former Yugoslavia."

"Brutal Conflict: _An Affront to the World's Conscience_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 28-37.

Yugoslav crisis.

Clinton, William J. "Exchange with Reporters Prior to a Meeting with Congressional Leaders, September 28, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 4 October 1993, pp. 1913-1914.

Bosnia and Somalia.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on Protection of United Nations Personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina, April 12, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 18 April 1994, p. 793.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, July 9, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 19 July 1993, pp. 1302-1303.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on Peacekeeping Operations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, January 8, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 17 January 1994, pp. 20-21.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

"The Cost of Weakness." Economist, Vol. 330, 29 January 1994, pp. 53-54.

Discord among peacemakers (America, UN, and Europe) about Bosnia.

Crow, Suzanne. "Russia Seeks Leadership in Regional Peacekeeping." RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 2, 9 April 1993, pp. 28-32.

Crow, Suzanne. "The Theory and Practice of Peacekeeping in the Former USSR." RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 1, 18 September 1992, pp. 31-36.

Dewar, Michael. "Intervention in Bosnia-The Case Against." World Today, Vol. 49, February 1993, pp. 32-34.

Fetherston, A.B.; Ramsbotham, O.; and Woodhouse, T. "UNPROFOR: Some Observations from a Conflict Resolution Perspective." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 179-203.

UN Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia.

Furdson, Edward. "High Hopes, or Unsustainable Progress?" Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 20, April-May 1994, pp. 29-30.

Bosnia.

Furlong, Bob. "Powder Keg of the Balkans: The UN Opts for Prevention in Macedonia." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 364-368.

Goodby, James E. "Collective Security in Europe After the Cold War." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 299-321.

Goodby, James E. "Peacekeeping in the New Europe." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Spring 1992, pp. 153-171.

Griffiths, D.N. "Waging Peace in Bosnia." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, January 1994, pp. 31-34.

Higgins, Rosalyn. "The New United Nations and Former Yugoslavia." International Affairs, Vol. 69, July 1993, pp. 465-483.

Huchthausen, Peter A. "Revisiting the Balkan Cauldron." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, May 1994, pp. 73-76.

Ide, Douglas. "Backing Peace in the Balkans." Soldiers, Vol. 49, March 1994, pp. 13-17.

Langan, John. "Justice or Peace? A Moral Assessment of Humanitarian Intervention in Bosnia." America, Vol. 170, 12 February 1994, pp. 9-14.

Linder, James C. "Myths of the Balkans." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, May 1994, pp. 77-78.

MacKenzie, Lewis. "Military Realities of UN Peacekeeping Operations." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, February 1993, pp. 21-24.

In the former Yugoslavia.

MacKenzie, Lewis. "Sarajevo Diary." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 6 September 1993, pp. 24-29.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Marnika, Maurice. "Some Comments on the UN Mandate in the Former Yugoslavia." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, September-October 1993, pp. 9-10.

Menanteau, Pierre. "French Air Force in Bosnia." Asian Defence Journal, No. 9, September 1994, pp. 50-52.

Militaris, Vox. "Bosnia: 24 Nations Send Soldiers to UNPROFOR." Army Quarterly & Defence Journal, Vol. 123, January 1993, pp. 19-26.

UN Protection Force.

Moore, Patrick. "A Return of the Serbian-Croatian Conflict?" RFE/RL Research Report, Vol. 2, 22 October 1993, pp. 16-20.

Former Yugoslavia.

Morillon, Philippe. "UN Operations in Bosnia: Lessons and Realities." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, December 1993, pp. 31-35.

"New UN Peace-Keeping Operation Launched to Verify Cease-Fire Pact." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 51.

Georgia.

O'Brien, Kevin A. "Russian Peacekeeping in the Near Abroad." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, July-August 1994, pp. 14-17.

"On Deadly Duty." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 4 July 1994, pp. 52-53.

Canadian peacekeepers in the former Yugoslavia.

"On the Firing Line: Canadians Try to Keep the Peace Between Warring Groups in the Explosive Balkan Republics." Maclean's, Vol. 105, 4 May 1992, pp. 24-28.

"Peacemaking Efforts _Must Continue_ Despite Persistent Problems: Secretary-General Calls for Comprehensive Approach." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 27-31.

Yugoslav crisis.

Post, Tom. "Blues for the Blue Helmets." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 7 February 1994, pp. 22-23.

Bosnia.

"_Remarkable Collaboration_: UNOMIG [UN Observer Mission in Georgia] Extended, Enlarged." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 69.

Ripley, Tim. "Bosnia Mission Forces UN to Grow with the Times." International Defense Review, Vol. 27, May 1994, pp. 63-65.

Sharp, Jane M.O. "Intervention in Bosnia-The Case For." World Today, Vol. 49, February 1993, pp. 29-32.

Stanglin, Douglas. "Civil War in Ossetia: Peacekeeping, Russian-Style." Box article. U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 114, 21 June 1993, pp. 46-47.

"A _Terrible War_ Rages On: International Tribunal Begins Work." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 62-66.

Yugoslav crisis.

"UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia]: Personnel Strength and Casualties." 3 charts. Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, July-August 1994, p. 8.

Yarup, Stephen A. "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Topographic Survey for Peacekeeping Forces." How They Fight: Armies of the World, June 1994, pp. 11-20.

Zada, John. "UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia]: The Civilian Component." Box article. Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, September-October 1994, p. 7.

MIDDLE EAST AND MEDITERRANEAN

Books and Documents

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 2: "Peacekeeping in the Mediterranean and the Middle East." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

McDermott, Anthony, and Skjelsbaek, Kjell, eds. The Multinational Force in Beirut, 1982-1984. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1991. 293pp. (JX1981 .P7M79 1991)

Pelcovits, Nathan A. The Long Armistice: UN Peacekeeping and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-1960. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993. 264pp. (DS119.7 .P443 1993)

Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism. The Aegean and Cyprus. Conflict Studies No. 232. London: June 1990. Pp. 11-18: "UN Peacekeeping in Cyprus," by Edward Fursdon. (D1 .C6 no. 232)

Robertson, Victor M., III. The Relationship Between War and Peacekeeping. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1992. 45pp. (U415 .A42 92 R62)

Uses the October 1973 war between Egypt and Israel and the UN Emergency Force II as a case study.

Salem, Norma, ed. Cyprus: A Regional Conflict and Its Resolution. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 260pp. (DS54 .C893 1992)

Siilasvuo, Ensio. In the Service of Peace in the Middle East, 1967-1979. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 388pp. (JX1981 .P7S495 1992)

Stjernfelt, Bertil. The Sinai Peace Front: UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Middle East, 1973-1980. Translated by Stig Nihlen. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 236pp. (UA832 .S74 1992)

Thakur, Ramesh. International Peacekeeping in Lebanon: United Nations Authority and Multinational Force. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. 356pp. (JX1981 .P7T48 1987)

US Department of the Army. Pamphlet 550-22: Cyprus, a Country Study. Washington: 1993. 304pp. Pp. 234-237: "United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus." (DS54 .A3C955 1993)

US Department of the Army. Pamphlet 550-24: Lebanon, a Country Study. Washington: 1989. 282pp. Pp. 196-197: "Operations of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon." (DS80 .L39 1989)

Waugh, David B. Peacekeeping and Principles of Operational Warfare: The U.S. and MNF in Lebanon, 1983-4. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 25pp. (V420 .W18 1993)

Videorecording

U.S. Peacekeeping Mission: The Beirut Fiasco, directed by David Wright. Princeton: Films for the Humanities & Science, 1994. Videorecording, 49 mins. (VIDEO DS87 .U77 1994)

Periodical Articles

Abizaid, John P. "Lessons for Peacekeepers." Military Review, Vol. 73, March 1993, pp. 11-19.

Northern Iraq.

"Agreement on Confidence-Building Measures Pursued." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, Mach 1994, p. 67. Cyprus.

Allan, James H. "Peacekeeping in the Persian Gulf." Military Review, Vol. 71, August 1991, pp. 56-63.

Bardehle, Peter. "The Role of the United Nations in the Settlement of the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88." Conflict Quarterly, Vol. 12, Spring 1992, pp. 36-50.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on the Cyprus Conflict, April 18, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 25 April 1994, pp. 834-836.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

Garcia, Elroy. "A Test of Patience." Soldiers, Vol. 49, March 1994, pp. 37-41.

Duty in the Sinai.

Hamilton-Smith, Martin. "Australians in the Multinational Force and Observers-An Alternative to the United Nations." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 68-82.

Henn, Francis. "The Nicosia Airport Incident of 1974: A Peacekeeping Gamble." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 80-98.

Cyprus.

"Joint Meetings Held in New York." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, p. 69.

Cyprus.

McDonald, Robert. "Cyprus: A Peacekeeping Paradigm." World Today, Vol. 49, October 1993, pp. 182-184.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Prater, Phil. "Keeping the Peace in the Middle East." Soldiers, Vol. 45, January 1990, pp. 26-32.

"Security Council Renews Force Mandate: No Agreement on Confidence-Building Package." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 38.

Cyprus.

Stone, Gary. "Peacekeeping on the Iran-Iraq Border." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 17, October 1990, pp. 9-12.

"Talks Continue, UNFICYP [UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus] Funding Changed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 46-47.

Zarov, Basil. "Assignment: Cyprus." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 54-63.

Professional photographer hired by UN.

SPECIAL PEACEKEEPING ASPECTS, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS

Books and Documents

Bash, Brooks L. The Role of United States Air Power in Peacekeeping. Thesis. Maxwell Air Force Base: US Air University, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, June 1994. 44pp. (UG635.3 .U51 TH B17)

Brooks, Michael A. The United Nations Standing Force: A Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 63pp. (V420 .B766 1993)

Doll, William J., and Metz, Steven. The Army and Multinational Peace Operations: Problems and Solutions. Report of a Roundtable sponsored by the US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute and the US Army Peacekeeping Institute. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 29 November 1993. 30pp. (U413 .A66 SR D65)

Duffy, Matthew J. Conventional Forces in the Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Arena in Central and Eastern Europe: Recommendations for the Army Helicopter Task Force Organization. Thesis. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1993. 148pp. (U415 .A4 TH D83)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Chap. 3: "Paying the Tab: Financial Crises," by William J. Durch. (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Independent Advisory Group on U.N. Financing. Financing an Effective United Nations. Report. Shijuro Ogata and Paul Volcker, Co-Chairmen. New York: Ford Foundation, February 1993. 33pp. Pp. 14-21: "Peacekeeping." (JX1977.8 .F5I53 1993)

Jones, Garrett. Intelligence Support to United Nations Activities. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 15 April 1993. 33pp. (AD-A263-869)

Lofgren, David J. Peacekeeping and the Army: Where Are We? Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 23 March 1990. 52pp. (AD-A220-691)

Lumetta, John P. UN Stand-By Forces: The Next Step Towards a System of Collective Security. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 107pp. (V420 .L85 1993)

McCoubrey, Hilaire, and White, Nigel D. International Law and Armed Conflict. Brookfield: Dartmouth, 1992. 371pp. Pp. 171-185: "Peacekeeping." (JX4511 .M38 1992)

McGreevy, Paul E. The Proposal for a United Nations Permanent Armed Force: United States Options. Newport: US Naval War College, 22 February 1993. 25pp. (V420 .M24 1993)

Nordic UN Tactical Manual. Jyvaskyla, Finland: Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy, 1992. 2 vols. (JX1981 .P7N65 1992 v.1, v.2)

Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Jr., and Shultz, Richard H., Jr., eds. Ethnic Conflict and Regional Instability: Implications for US Policy and Army Roles and Missions. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1994. 359pp. Pp. 191-199: "Peacekeeping and Crisis Management from an Alliance Perspective." (U413 .A66E85 1994)

Rember, W. Bruce. Wings for Peace: Air Power in Peacemaking Operations. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1992. 57pp. (U415 .A42 93 R46)

Roper, John, et al. Keeping the Peace in the Post-Cold War Era: Strengthening Multilateral Peacekeeping: A Report to the Trilateral Commission. Triangle Papers No. 43. New York: Trilateral Commission, 1993. 101pp. Pp. 17-48: "Financing UN Peacekeeping," by Enid C.B. Schoetttle. (JX1954 .K345 1993)

Rostow, Eugene V. Should Article 43 of the United Nations Charter Be Raised from the Dead? McNair Paper Nineteen. Washington: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, July 1993. 22pp. (U411 .I6M12 no.19)

Establishing a strong military force under the control of the Security Council.

Sands, Jeffrey I. Blue Hulls: Multinational Naval Cooperation and the United Nations. CNA Research Memorandum 93-40. Alexandria: Center for Naval Analyses, 4 August 1993. 1 vol. (V394 .A7 RM-93 40)

Segal, David R., and Segal, Mady W. Peacekeepers and Their Wives: American Participation in the Multinational Force and Observers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1993. 181pp. (JX1981 .P7S44 1993)

Staley, Robert S., II. The Wave of the Future: The United Nations and Naval Peacekeeping. Boulder: Rienner, 1992. 63pp. (JX1981 .P7S73 1992)

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Cost of DOD Operations in Somalia: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington: March 1994. 54pp. (UH723 .U531 1994)

US General Accounting Office. United Nations: How Assessed Contributions for Peacekeeping Operations Are Calculated: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: August 1994, 36pp. (JK1977.8 .F5U53 1994)

Wurmser, David, and Dyke, Nancy B. The Professionalization of Peacekeeping: A Study Group Report, ed. by Robert B. Oakley, Indar J. Rikhye, and Kenneth M. Jensen. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 1993. 70pp. (JX4481 .W87 1993)

Periodical Articles

Abizaid, John P., and Wood, John R. "Preparing for Peacekeeping: Military Training and the Peacekeeping Environment." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 14-20.

Adams, James. "The Role of the Media in Peacekeeping Operations." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 12-13.

Adams, Paul D. "Rules of Engagement: The Peacekeeper's Friend or Foe?" Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, October 1993, pp. 21-23.

Adams, Thomas K. "SOF [Special Operations Forces] in Peace-Support Operations." Special Warfare, Vol. 6, October 1993, pp. 2-7.

Allen, William W.; Johnson, Antione D.; and Nelsen, John T., II. "Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Operations." Military Review, Vol. 73, October 1993, pp. 53-61.

US Army's future role in peacekeeping missions.

Allison, George. "The United States Navy and United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations." Naval War College Review, Vol. 46, Summer 1993, pp. 22-35.

Annan, Kofi A. "UN Peacekeeping Operations and Cooperation with NATO." NATO Review, Vol. 41, October 1993, pp. 3-7.

Applewhite, Larry W., and Segal, David R. "Telephone Use by Peacekeeping Troops in the Sinai." Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 17, Fall 1990, pp. 117-126.

Baker, James H. "On Putting U.S. Troops Under U.N. Command." Army Times, 1 November 1993, p. 31.

Barry, John. "Soon, _Phasers on Stun_." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 7 February 1994, pp. 24-26.

Nonlethal weapons.

Beaver, Paul. "UN Forced to Count Costs of Peacekeeping Expansion." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 5 February 1994, pp. 15-16.

Bird, Kai. "The Case for a U.N. Army." Nation, Vol. 259, 8-15 August 1994, pp. 160-164.

Blackham, J.J. "Maritime Peacekeeping." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, August 1993, pp. 18-23.

Burroughs, Daniel. "Training for Peace: NATO Rapid Reaction Forces Complete Exercises." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 131, April 1994, p. 19.

"Buying Blue Helmets." Economist, Vol. 326, 27 February 1993, p. 43.

Includes graph of biennial UN budget.

Cairns, P.W. "Maritime Training for Peacekeeping Operations." NATO's Sixteen Nations, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, pp. 17-20.

Corelli, Rae. "An Army's Hidden Wounds." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 28 March 1994, pp. 31-33. Peacekeepers' psychological strain.

Cornell-D_Echert, Blaise, Jr. "We Need a Peacekeeping MTP [Mission Training Plan]." Infantry, Vol. 84, July-August 1994, pp. 34-35.

"Current Peacekeeping Operations." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, November-December 1994, p. 19.

Includes figures for rough annual cost, operational strength, fatalities.

Davis, Malcolm. "How to Win Wars Without Actually Killing." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 20, April-May 1994, pp. 36-37.

Nonlethal weapons.

Doherty, Carroll J. "The Price of Peacekeeping." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol. 52, 26 February 1994, p. 485.

Fairbank, John. "PAMS XVIII: UN Peacekeeping Support." Asia-Pacific Defense Forum, Vol. 19, Summer 1994, pp. 26-31.

The Eighteenth Pacific Armies Management Seminar's discussions centered on "Training and Operations in Support of United Nations Peacekeeping Efforts."

Gerry, Alexander A.C. "Peacekeeping: Reserves Role Expanded." Officer, Vol. 70, July 1994, pp. 32-36.

Greenberg, Keith E. "The Essential Art of Empathy." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 64-69.

Training of peacekeepers.

Harleman, Christian. "Peace-Keeping and Disarmament in the Peace-Building Process." Disarmament, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1992, pp. 119-132.

Harper, Gregory P. "Creating a U.N. Peace Enforcement Force: A Case for U.S. Leadership." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 49-63.

Herteleer, W. "Mine Warfare in Peacekeeping Operations." NATO's Sixteen Nations, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, pp. 14-16.

Hillen, John F., III. "Policing the New World Order: The Operational Utility of a Permanent U.N. Army." Strategic Review, Vol. 22, Spring 1994, pp. 54-62.

Hitchens, Theresa, and Leopold, George. "Member Nations Balk as Cost of U.N. Peace Efforts Rises." Defense News, Vol. 8, 7-13 June 1994, p. 14.

Hitchens, Theresa, and Leopold, George. "U.N. Adjusts to Police Role: Awkwardly Looks to NATO to Help with Peacekeeping." Defense News, Vol. 8, 7-13 June 1993, pp. 1, 50.

Houck, Boyd D. "Engineer Support to Peacekeeping." Engineer, Vol. 23, August 1993, pp. 12-17.

Isaacs, John. "Just Put It on Our Tab." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 49, October 1993, pp. 7-9.

Paying for peacekeeping.

Jones, Peter. "Peacekeeping and Aerial Surveillance." 3 pts. Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, March-April 1993, pp. 3-4; Vol. 22, September-October 1993, pp. 3-5; Vol. 23, July-August 1994, pp. 5-7.

Jurado, Sonia R., and Diehl, Paul F. "UN Peacekeeping and Arms Control Verification." Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 15, April 1994, pp. 38-54.

Kirsch, Philippe. "The Legal Basis of Peacekeeping." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 18-23.

Krepon, Michael, and Tracey, Jeffrey P. "_Open Skies_ and UN Peace-Keeping." Survival, Vol. 32, May-June 1990, pp. 251-263.

Aerial surveillance.

Lane, Larry. "Comrades in Arms." Soldiers, Vol. 49, November 1994, pp. 37-41.

Describes PEACEKEEPER 1994, a combined American-Russian training exercise.

Leach, Raymond J. "_Information_ Support to U.N. Forces." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 49-50.

"Learning from Rwanda." Economist, Vol. 332, 20 August 1994, pp. 13-14.

Proposes the establishment of a UN rapid deployment force.

MacKenzie, Lewis. "Polemics and Prescriptions: Interview with a Peacekeeper General," by Peter Saracino. International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 370-371.

Mallette, Rodney A. "Logistics for UN Peacekeeping Operations." Army Logistician, January-February 1994, pp. 22-24.

Matthews, William. "Sr. NCOs Reject Idea of Separate Peacekeeping Force." Army Times, 28 November 1994, p. 26.

Maxime, S. "Blue Helmets, Black Markets." World Press Review, Vol. 40, October 1993, p. 17.

Maze, Rick. "Congress Debates Foreign Command: Keeping Troops Out from Under Foreign Leadership Could Derail U.N. Role." Army Times, 29 November 1993, p. 26.

Metz, Steven. "The Air Force Role in United Nations Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal, Vol. 7, Winter 1993, pp. 68-81.

Michaels, Marguerite. "Blue-Helmet Blues: Strapped for Cash and Short of Manpower, U.N. Peacekeepers Are Asked to Do Too Much with Too Little." Time, Vol. 142, 15 November 1993, pp. 66-67.

Miller, David. "Naval Training for Multinational Peacekeeping." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, December 1993, pp. 955-960.

Mills, Susan R. "Paying for Peacekeeping." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 24-29.

Morrison, Alex. "The Fiction of a U.N. Standing Army." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 83-96.

Morrison, David C. "Make Peace-Or Else!" National Journal, Vol. 24, 3 October 1992, pp. 2250-2254.

UN standing army.

Morrocco, John D. "U.S. Trains for Peacekeeping." Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 140, 25 April 1994, pp. 36-37.

Joint eight-day exercise in Alaska.

"Nonlethal Weapons Give Peacekeepers Flexibility." Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 137, 7 December 1992, pp. 50-51.

Ogorkiewicz, R.M. "Armouring Vehicles for Peacekeeping." International Defense Review, Vol. 27, February 1994, pp. 33-36.

Oswald, Julian. "U.N. Maritime Operations: _Realities, Problems, and Possibilities_." Naval War College Review, Vol. 46, Autumn 1993, pp. 124-129.

"Paying for the Peacekeepers." Economist, Vol. 322, 25 January 1992, pp. 17-18.

Powell, Stewart M. "American Troops-American Command." Air Force, Vol. 77, January 1994, pp. 46-49.

Turning US forces over to UN field command.

Primosch, Edmund G. "The Roles of United Nations Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) Within United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations." International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 43, April 1994, pp. 425-431.

Prins, Gwyn. "The United Nations and Peace-Keeping in the Post-Cold-War World: The Case of Naval Power." Bulletin of Peace Proposals, Vol. 22, June 1991, pp. 135-155.

Pugh, Michael C. "Multinational Naval Cooperation." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, March 1994, pp. 72-74.

Pugh, Michael C. "Peacekeeping-A Role for Navies?" Naval Forces, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1992, pp. 8-10.

Pugh, Michael C. "Peacekeeping, Monitoring and Verification." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, July-August 1993, p. 13-15.

Naval peacekeeping.

Rechner, Patrick A. "Should the UN Have Its Own Army?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, March-April 1994, pp. 4-5.

Rubinstein, Robert A. "Cultural Aspects of Peacekeeping: Notes on the Substance of Symbols." Millennium, Vol. 22, Winter 1993, pp. 547-562.

Schoettle, Enid C.B. "U.N. Dues: The Price of Peace." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 48, June 1992, pp. 14-16.

Segal, David R.; Furukawa, Theodore P.; and Lindh, Jerry C. "Light Infantry as Peacekeepers in the Sinai." Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 16, Spring 1990, pp. 385-403.

Shadwick, Martin. "Focus on Peacekeeping Equipment." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 22, October 1992, pp. S1-S5.

Smith, Hugh. "Intelligence and UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 174-192.

Smith, William D. "Peacemaking from the Sea." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 119, August 1993, pp. 25-28.

Stanley, Timothy. "A Better Way to Keep the Peace." American Legion, Vol. 134, March 1993, pp. 32-33, 54.

Commentary on a UN standing force.

"Summary of Personnel Contributions to UN Peacekeeping Operations by Countries." Table. Regular feature in each bi-monthly issue of Peacekeeping & International Relations.

"The U.N. to the Rescue: Blue Berets Are Suddenly in Fashion, But Who Will Pay for Them?" U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 112, 18 May 1992, pp. 52-54.

"The U.S. and NATO Raise the Ante in Bosnia, February 5-April 7, 1994." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, May-June 1994, pp. 2-18.

Selected official statements and documents.

"A Victim of Its Own Popularity?" UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 47.

UN's financial crisis.

Vogel, Steve. "GIs, Russians Find Peacekeeping Has Many Paths." Army Times, 19 September 1994, p. 6.

Russian-American exercise dubbed PEACEKEEPER 94, 2-10 September 1994.

Vogel, Steve. "Joint Drill in Russia." Army Times, 19 September 1994, p. 6.

Russian-American exercise, PEACEKEEPER 94, 2-10 September 1994.

Warfe, P.G. "Military Medicine and Peacekeeping." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 60-67.

Weinrod, W. Bruce. "U.N. Peacekeeping: A Question of Command." American Legion, Vol. 136, February 1994, pp. 20-22, 61.

"Who Commands Whom?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, March-April 1993, p. 15.

Essay discusses decision to allow US troops, engaged in peacekeeping activities, to be placed under authority of commanders from other countries.

OTHER BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Center for Defense Information. Peacekeeping Citation List. Washington: [Bi-weekly] 1994. (Ref JX1981 .P7P433)

US Air University Library. Peacekeeping: Selected References, compiled by Joan Hyatt. Special Bibliography No. 304. Maxwell Air Force Base: June 1993. 55pp. (UG635.3 .U5 SB-304)

US Army Combined Arms Command. Foreign Military Studies Office. Research Sources on Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement, by Timothy L. Sanz. Fort Leavenworth: August 1993. 22pp. (U415 .F5S15 1993)

US Army War College Library. Peacekeeping: A Selected Bibliography, compiled by Virginia C. Shope. Carlisle Barracks: January 1994. 36pp. (U413 .Z92P4 1994)

US Naval War College. Peacekeeping: Issues for the United Nations and the United States, compiled by Alice K. Juda. Library Notes Vol. 23, No. 2. Newport: US Naval War College, October 1994. 14pp. (Ref Index Table)