PEACEKEEPING

A Selected Bibliography

February 1996

Compiled by Virginia Shope

Preface

With the end of the Cold War, there has been a significant increase in peacekeeping missions around the globe. The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a starting place for research on peacekeeping's expanding role in world affairs.

Now in its third revised edition, this selected bibliography has been tailored to include primarily those materials published since 1992, with special emphasis on books, documents, and periodical articles added to the U.S. Army War College Library's collection during 1995. For earlier citations, researchers should consult the first edition (January 1994) which covers publications dated 1980 through 1993 and the second edition (January 1995) which covers 1990 through 1994.

All materials referenced in this bibliography are readily available in the USAWC Library. For your convenience, we have added our call numbers at the end of each book entry. Please keep in mind that call numbers vary from library to library.

This bibliography is also available electronically. USAWC faculty, staff, and students with access to the USAWC's Local Area Network will find it on the Library's Bulletin Board. Internet users can reach it through our Library's home page (URL: http://carlisle-www.army.

mil/library/).

For additional information, please contact the Research and Information Services Branch, U.S. Army War College Library, by sending an e-mail message to awcsl-r@awc.carlisle.army.mil, or by phoning DSN 242-4280 or Commercial (717) 2454280.

Virginia C. Shope, compiler

PEACEKEEPING

A Selected Bibliography

CONTENTS

GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

NATIONAL VIEWS ON PEACEKEEPING: PERSPECTIVES, GUIDELINES,

AND POLICIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS AROUND THE WORLD,

PAST AND PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Maps and Lists 21

Africa 22

Asia 29

Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States 32

Latin America and Caribbean 38

Middle East and Mediterranean 40

SPECIAL PEACEKEEPING ASPECTS, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

GENERAL INFORMATION

Books and Documents

Berdal, Mats R. Whither UN Peacekeeping? Adelphi Paper No. 81. London: International Institute of Strategic Studies, 1993. 88pp. (JX1981 .P7B4 1993)

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping: Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to the Statement Adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992. New York: United Nations, 1992. 53pp. (JX1953 .B68 1992)

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. New York: United Nations, 3 January 1995. 24pp. (UN Microfiche 1995 A/50/60)

Also in International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Summer 1995, pp. 253-277. (Periodical)

Burk, James, ed. The Military in New Times: Adapting Armed Forces to a Turbulent World. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. 212pp. Pp. 163-180: "Multinational Peacekeeping Operations: Background and Effectiveness," by David R. Segal and Robert J. Waldman. (UA11 .M466 1994)

Conflict Studies Conference, September 1992, University of New Brunswick. Peacekeeping and the Challenge of Civil Conflict Resolution. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference, ed. by David A. Charters. Fredericton, NB: University of New Brunswick, Centre of Conflict Studies, 1994. 220pp. (JX1981 .P7C51 1994)

Connors, Brenda. Mission Possible: Making United Nations Peace Operations More Effective. Newport: US Naval War College, 17 June 1994. 33pp. (V420 .C66 1994)

Cronin, Patrick M., ed. From Globalism to Regionalism: New Perspectives on US Foreign and Defense Policies. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1993. 259pp. Pp. 181-197: "United Nations Forces and Regional Conflicts," by William J. Durch. (E881 .F76 1992)

Daniel, Donald C.F., and Hayes, Bradd C., eds. Beyond Traditional Peacekeeping. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 320pp. (JX1981 .P7B47 1995)

Davis, Lynn E. Peacekeeping and Peacemaking After the Cold War. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 1993. 36pp. (JX1981 .P7D33 1993)

Dennehy, Edward J., et al. A Blue Helmet Combat Force. National Security Program Policy Analysis Paper 93-01. Cambridge: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 1993. 33pp. (UA10.5 .N34 93-01)

Diehl, Paul F. International Peacekeeping. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. 211pp. (JX1981 .P7D46 1993)

Durch, William J. The United Nations and Collective Security in the 21st Century. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, February 1993. 38pp. (U413 .A66D87 1993)

Durch, William J., and Blechman, Barry M. Keeping the Peace: The United Nations in the Emerging World Order. Washington: Henry L. Stimson Center, March 1992. 108pp. (JX1981 .P7D87 1992)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Evans, Gareth J. Cooperating for Peace: The Global Agenda for the 1990's and Beyond. St. Leonards, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 1993. 224pp. Pp. 99-129: "Peace Keeping." (JX1952 .E98 1993)

Fetherston, A.B. Towards a Theory of United Nations Peacekeeping. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. 292pp. (JX1981 .P7F48 1994)

Chap. 1: "A Brief History of United Nations Peacekeeping, 1945-87."

Chap. 2: "UN Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War World."

Chap. 4: "Outlining a Theoretical Approach."

Chap. 5: "Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peacebuilding: Definitions and Linkages."

Chap. 6: "Developing a Conceptual Framework for Peacekeeping."

Forster, Larry M. Peace Operations: Forging the Instruments and Keeping the Edge. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 2 April 1993. 39pp. (AD-A264-204)

Holmes, Walter M. The United Nations: Towards Being an Effective World Policeman. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 1993. 36pp. (AD-A263-591)

James, Alan. Peacekeeping in International Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. 378pp. (JX44881 .J36 1990)

Klare, Michael T., and Thomas, Daniel C. World Security: Challenges for a New Century. 2d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. 408pp. Pp. 188-215: "Maintaining International Peace and Security: UN Peacekeeping and Peacemaking," by Margaret P. Karns and Karen A. Mingst. (JX19452 .K488 1994)

Lee, John M.; Pagenhardt, Robert V.; and Stanley, Timothy W. To Unite Our Strength: Enhancing the United Nations Peace and Security System. Lanham: University Press of America, 1992. 166pp. (JX1981 .P7L42 1992)

Lewis, William H., ed. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. McNair Paper Seventeen. Washington: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, June 1993. 98pp. (U411 .I6M12 no. 17)

Lewis, William H., ed. Peacekeeping: The Way Ahead? McNair Paper 25. Washington: National Defense University, November 1993. 68pp. (U411 .IM12 no. 25)

Liu, F.T. United Nations Peacekeeping and the Non-Use of Force. Boulder: Rienner, 1992. 46pp. (JX1981 .P7L585 1992)

Metz, Steven. The Future of the United Nations: Implications for Peace Operations. Special Report. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 5 October 1993. 40pp. (U413 .A66 SR M27)

Mokhtari, Fariborz L., ed. Peacemaking, Peacekeeping and Coalition Warfare: The Future Role of the United Nations. Proceedings of a Conference Cosponsored by National Defense University and Norwich University. Washington: National Defense University, 1994. 293pp. (JX1981 .P7P4 1994)

Norton, Augustus R., and Weiss, Thomas G. UN Peacekeepers: Soldiers with a Difference. Headline Series No. 292. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1990. 64pp. (E744 .H43 no. 292)

Petrie, John N., ed. Essays on Strategy XI. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1994. 403pp. Pp. 49-75: "The UN Secretary-General's Peacekeeping Proposals," by C.W. Hoffman, Jr. (U162 .E87 1994)

Petrie, John N., ed. Essays on Strategy XII. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1994. 415pp. Pp. 325-370: "Military Theory and Peace Enforcement Operations," by Gerald D. Roncolato. (U162 .E87 1994a)

Ramsbotham, David. The Changing Nature of Intervention: The Role of UN Peacekeeping. Conflict Studies No. 282. London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, August 1995. 28pp. (D1 .C6 no. 282)

Renner, Michael. Critical Juncture: The Future of Peacekeeping. Worldwatch Paper 114. Washington: Worldwatch Institute, May 1993. 74pp. (TD170 .W5 no. 114)

Roberts, Adam, and Kingsbury, Benedict, eds. United Nations, Divided World: The UN's Roles in International Relations. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. 589pp. (JX1977 .U42 1993)

Roper, John, et al. Keeping the Peace in the Post-Cold War Era: Strengthening Multilateral Peacekeeping: A Report to the Trilateral Commission. Triangle Papers No. 43. New York: Trilateral Commission, 1993. 101pp. (JX1954 .K345 1993)

Schnese, Craig M. United Nations-Divided States: Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Thesis. Monterey: US Naval Postgraduate School, December 1993. 236pp. (V425 .U5 TH S26)

Sihota, Aneet S. The United Nations in Peacekeeping Operations of the Future. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 15 April 1993. 55pp. (AD-A264-907)

Simma, Bruno, ed. The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 1258pp. Pp. 565-603: "Peace-Keeping." (Ref JX1977 .A15 1994)

Smith, Hugh, ed. Peacekeeping: Challenges for the Future. Canberra: Australian Defence Force Academy, Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1993. 229pp. (JX1981 .P7S56 1993)

Snider, Don M., and Schwartzstein, Stuart J.D., eds. The United Nations at Fifty: Sovereignty, Peacekeeping, and Human Rights. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1995. 74pp. Pp. 39-44: "The Recent Evolution and Future of UN Peacekeeping," by Hédi Annabi. (JX1977 .U42585 1995)

Tessitore, John, and Woolfson, Susan, eds. A Global Agenda: Issues Before the 49th General Assembly of the United Nations: An Annual Publication of the United Nations Association of the United States of America. 1994-1995 ed. Lanham: University Press of America, 1994. Part 1: "Making and Keeping the Peace." (JX1977 .A1U52 1994-95)

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

Tharoor, Shashi. Peace-Keeping: Principles, Problems, Prospects. Research Report 9-93. Newport: US Naval War College, Center for Naval Warfare Studies, Strategic Research Department, 22 December 1993. 10pp. (V420 .T42 1994)

Also in Naval War College Review, Vol. 47, Spring 1994, pp. 9-22. (Periodical)

Thomas, Timothy L. Peace Operations: The Terminology Challenge Before the International Community in a Period of Post-Cold War Cooperation. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Combined Arms Command, Foreign Military Studies Office, November 1993. 12pp. (U415 .F5T35 1993)

US Army Combined Arms Command. Center for Army Lessons Learned. Operations Other Than War: Volume IV: Peace Operations. CALL Newsletter No. 93-8. Fort Leavenworth: December 1993. 1 vol. (U408.3 .C24 no. 93-08)

US Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Operations and the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations. Future of U.N. Peacekeeping Operations. Hearing, 102d Cong., 2d Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1992. 109pp. (CIS Microfiche 1992 H381-52)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Reform of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: A Mandate for Change. Committee Print, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, August 1993. 106pp. (JX1981 .P7R43 1993)

Warner, Daniel, ed. New Dimensions of Peacekeeping. Boston: Nijhoff, 1995. 210pp. (JX1981 .P7N45 1995)

Weiss, Thomas G.; Forsythe, David P.; and Coate, Roger A. The United Nations and Changing World Politics. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. 292pp. (JX1977 .W42 1994)

Chap. 2: "The Reality of UN Security Efforts During the Cold War."

Chap. 3: "UN Security Operations After the Cold War."

Wellwood, Christopher R. United Nations Peacekeeping: The Road to Success. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 13 February 1992. 37pp. (AD-A247-953)

White, N.D. Keeping the Peace: The United Nations and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security. New York: Manchester University Press, 1993. 267pp. (JX1977 .W46 1993)

Willey, James M. Collective Engagement, Peacekeeping, and Operations Other Than War. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 5 April 1993. 31pp. (AD-A264-536)

Videorecording

Center for Defense Information. The U.N.'s Blue Helmets. Oakland: Video Project, 1989. Videorecording, 29 mins. (VIDEO JX1981 .P7U5 1989)

History and future of the UN military peacekeeping forces.

Periodicals That Focus on Peacekeeping Issues

International Peacekeeping. London: Frank Cass. Quarterly issues.

Peace Watch. Washington: United States Institute of Peace. Bi-monthly issues.

Continues United States Institute of Peace Journal.

Peacekeeping & International Relations. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. Bi-monthly issues.

UN Chronicle. New York: United Nations Department of Public Information. Quarterly issues.

Periodical Articles

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. "Peacekeeping: Our Least Understood Mission." Military Intelligence, July-September 1992, pp. 17-19.

Albright, Madeleine K. "U.N. Reform for Peacekeeping, Collective Security." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, September-October 1993, pp. 30-38.

Selected statements and speeches, 8-24 June 1993.

Annan, Kofi A. "The Path of Peace-Keeping: Translating Commitment into Action." Harvard International Review, Vol. 15, Summer 1993, pp. 34-35, 67-68.

Armstrong, Charles L. "From Futility to Insanity-A Brief Overview of United Nations Failures." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 46-48.

Also in Military Technology, Vol. 18, December 1994, pp. 89-91.

Baker, James H. "Policy Challenges of UN Peace Operations." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 13-26.

Biermann, Wolfgang. "_Old_ UN Peacekeeping Principles and _New_ Conflicts: Some Ideas to Reduce the Troubles of Post-Cold War Peace Missions." European Security, Vol. 4, Spring 1995, pp. 39-55.

Bolton, John R. "U.N. Peacekeeping Efforts to Promote Security and Stability." DISAM Journal, Vol. 14, Summer 1992, pp. 50-54.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "An Agenda for Peace." Military Technology, Vol. 18, December 1994, pp. 58-67.

Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "An Agenda for Peace: One Year Later." Orbis, Vol. 37, Summer 1993, pp. 323-332.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Empowering the United Nations." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 71, Winter 1992-1993, pp. 89-102.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Improving the Capacity of the United Nations for Peacekeeping." Military Technology, Vol. 18, December 1994, pp. 70-82.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping for the Next Century: The United Nations Mission." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 61, 15 March 1995, pp. 322-324.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "Setting a New Agenda for the United Nations." Interview. Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 289-298.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. "UN Peace-Keeping in a New Era: A New Chance for Peace." World Today, Vol. 49, April 1993, pp. 66-69.

Brady, Christopher, and Daws, Sam. "UN Operations: The Political-Military Interface." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 59-79.

"Broader Horizons: Growing Responsibilities." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 90-91.

Burback, Steve. "The Blue Helmets: A History of United Nations Peacekeeping Forces." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, January 1994, pp. 2-6.

"Can Peacekeeping Survive?" Economist, Vol. 334, 11 February 1995, pp. 37-38.

Chopra, Jarat. "Back to the Drawing Board." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 29-35.

Author feels "peace maintenance" is what the UN Charter intended, not peacekeeping as we know it today.

"Composition and Organization of UN Peacekeeping Operations." Military Technology, Vol. 18, December 1994, pp. 68-69.

Connaughton, Richard. "Time to Clear the Doctrine Dilemma." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 9 April 1994, pp. 19-20.

Corelli, Rae. "Global Cops: With Its Peacekeepers Around the World Under Attack or Ignored, the United Nations Struggles to Police the Globe." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 18 January 1993, pp. 22-25.

Craft, Graham. "Security Concepts and Peacekeeping Operations." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, July-August 1995, pp. 9-11.

Dallachie, Charles A. "Meeting the Challenges of Peace." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 79, November 1995, pp. 45-49.

"Despite Successes, UN Operations Need More Support." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, December 1994, p. 40.

Diehl, Paul F. "Institutional Alternatives to Traditional U.N. Peacekeeping: An Assessment of Regional and Multinational Options." Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 19, Winter 1993, pp. 209-230.

Diehl, Paul F. "Regional Alternatives to UN Peacekeeping Operations." Swords and Ploughshares, Vol. 8, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 7-11.

Dobbie, Charles. "A Concept for Post-Cold War Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 121-148.

Elliott, Michael. "A Field Guide to Neocolonialists." Newsweek, Vol. 124, 8 August 1994, p. 27.

Analyzes why some countries decide to intervene abroad.

Fetherston, A.B. "Putting the Peace Back into Peacekeeping: Theory Must Inform Practice." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 3-29.

Fisher, Ronald J. "The Potential for Peacebuilding: Forging a Bridge from Peacekeeping to Peacemaking." Peace & Change, Vol. 18, July 1993, pp. 247-266.

"Focus on the United Nations: UN Peacekeeping Operations." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, 1 May 1995, pp. 377-379.

Also in DISAM Journal, Vol. 17, Summer 1995, pp. 54-58.

"Goulding Describes New Era of Peace-Keeping." UN Chronicle, Vol. 29, September 1992, pp. 16-17.

Marrack Goulding, Under-Secretary-General for Peace-Keeping Operations.

Goulding, Marrack. "The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping." International Affairs, Vol. 69, July 1993, pp. 451-464.

Grey, Robert T., Jr. "Strengthening the United Nations to Implement the _Agenda for Peace_." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Summer 1993, pp. 20-25.

Hall, Brian. "Blue Helmets, Empty Guns." New York Times Magazine, 2 January 1994, pp. 18-25, 30, 38, 41-43.

Henn, Francis. "UN Peacekeeping: The Mirror Should Be Polished." Contemporary Review, Vol. 264, June 1994, pp. 281-287.

Henrikson, Alan K. "How Can the Vision of a _New World Order_ Be Realized?" Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 16, Winter 1992, pp. 63-79.

Hillen, John F., III. "UN Collective Security: Chapter Six and a Half." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 27-37.

Hoffman, Michael H. "War, Peace, and Interventional Armed Conflict: Solving the Peace Enforcer's Paradox." Parameters, Vol. 25, Winter 1995-96, pp. 41-52.

Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 323-340.

Hunt, John B. "Thoughts on Peace Support Operations." Military Review, Vol. 74, October 1994, pp. 76-85.

Inge, Peter. "UN Operations in a Changing Security Environment." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 372-373.

James, Alan. "The History of Peacekeeping: An Analytical Perspective." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 10-17.

James, Alan. "Internal Peace-Keeping: A Dead End for the UN?" Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, December 1993, pp. 359-368.

James, Alan. "Peacekeeping in the Post-Cold War Era." International Journal, Vol. 50, Spring 1995, pp. 241-265.

Kearns, Darien L. "The Need for Criteria in UN Peace Operations." Military Review, Vol. 74, July 1994, pp. 34-42.

Kemp, Ian. "Peacekeeping Between the Battle Lines." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 19, 13 March 1993, pp. 23-28.

Leibstone, Marvin. "UN Peacekeeping: 1996 and Beyond." Military Technology, Vol. 19, November 1995, pp. 37-40.

Lewis, Paul. "A Short History of United Nations Peacekeeping." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 33-47.

Lewis, William H. "Peacekeeping: The Deepening Debate." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Summer 1993, pp. 26-32.

Lewis, William H., and Sewall, John O.B. "United Nations Peacekeeping: Ends versus Means." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 1, Summer 1993, pp. 48-57.

Includes map of on-going peacekeeping missions, pp. 52-53.

Lind, Michael. "Alboutros: The Imperial U.N. Secretary-General." New Republic, Vol. 208, 28 June 1993, pp. 16-20.

Secretary-General of the UN, Boutros Boutros-Ghali.

Lind, Michael. "Peacefaking: The Case Against U.N. _Peacemaking_." New Republic, Vol. 209, 8 November 1993, p. 14-17.

Longworth, Richard C. "Phantom Forces, Diminished Dreams." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 24-28.

UN peacekeeping.

Loomis, Dan. "Prospects for UN Peacekeeping." Global Affairs, Vol. 8, Winter 1993, pp. 125-140.

Luck, Edward C., and Gati, Toby T. "Whose Collective Security?" Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Spring 1992, pp. 43-56.

Lyons, Gene M. "A New Collective Security: The United Nations and International Peace." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 17, Spring 1994, pp. 173-199.

Mackinlay, John. "Improving Multifunctional Forces." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 149-173.

Mackinlay, John, and Chopra, Jarat. "Second Generation Multinational Operations." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Summer 1992, pp. 113-131.

Mallinson, Allan. "No Middle Ground for UN." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 14 May 1994, pp. 19-20.

Mann, Edward. "Military Support for _Peace Efforts_." Airpower Journal, Vol. 7, Fall 1993, pp. 51-61.

Marks, Edward. "Peace Operations: Involving Regional Organizations." Strategic Forum, No. 25, April 1995, entire issue.

Marnika, Maurice. "Report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations." International Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, September-October 1995, pp. 7-8.

Synopsis of the Committee of 34 Report on Peacekeeping Operations, A/50/230, 22 June 1995.

Martin, Laurence. "Peacekeeping as a Growth Industry." National Interest, No. 32, Summer 1993, pp. 3-11.

Martinez, William J. "Peace Operations." Infantry, Vol. 84, May-June 1994, pp. 39-40.

Meacham, James. "From Peacekeeping to Peacemaking: United Nations Faces a Changing Role." International Defense Review, Vol. 25, March 1992, pp. 217-221.

Menon, Bhaskar. "A Dangerous Time for Peace-Keepers." World Press Review, Vol. 40, October 1993, pp. 15-16.

Mockaitis, Thomas R. "Peacekeeping in Intra-State Conflict." Small Wars & Insurgencies, Vol. 6, Spring 1995, pp. 112-125.

Moore, Mike. "U.N. Peacekeeping, a Glass Half Empty, Half Full." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 22-23.

Morrison, Alex. "Beware the Definitional Morass." Editorial. Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, November-December 1993, p. 1.

Discusses Boutros-Ghali's definition of peacekeeping.

Neack, Laura. "UN Peace-Keeping: In the Interest of Community or Self?" Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 32, May 1995, pp. 181-196.

"No Peace in Peacekeeping." Cover Story. Army Times, 11 October 1993, pp. 14-16.

"Non-Traditional Missions and the Use of Force: The Debate Over Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and Related Operations." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, entire issue.

Norton, Augustus R. "Peacekeeping, Civil Society and Conflict Regulation." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 31-33.

"Peace-Keeping: A Whole New Range of Responsibilities." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 48.

"Peace-Keeping Guidelines Set Out by Security Council." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 54.

Pegg, Scott. "Interposition and the Territorial Separation of Warring Forces: Time for a Rethink?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, May-June 1994, pp. 4-5.

Pirnie, Bruce. "A Typology for Peace Operations." Military Science & Modeling, Vol. 6, November 1994, pp. 21-23.

Quinlivan, James T. "Force Requirements in Stability Operations." Parameters, Vol. 25, Winter 1995-1996, pp. 59-69.

Ramsbotham, David. "UN Operations: The Art of the Possible." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, December 1993, pp. 25-30.

Rapuano, Kenneth. "Peace-Enforcement Operations." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, October 1993, pp. 17-20.

Rieff, David. "The Illusions of Peacekeeping." World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, Fall 1994, pp. 1-18.

Rifkind, Malcolm. "Peacekeeping or Peacemaking? Implications and Prospects." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, April 1993, pp. 1-6.

Riza, S. Iqbal. "Parameters of UN Peace-Keeping." RUSI Journal, Vol. 140, June 1995, pp. 17-20.

Roberts, Adam. "The Crisis in UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 93-120.

Roberts, Adam. "From San Francisco to Sarajevo: The UN and the Use of Force." Survival, Vol. 37, Winter 1995-1996, pp. 7-28.

Roberts, Adam. "The United Nations and International Security." Survival, Vol. 35, Summer 1993, pp. 3-30.

Rostow, Eugene V. "Is U.N. Peacekeeping a Growth Industry?" Joint Force Quarterly, No. 4, Spring 1994, pp. 100-105.

Rudolph, Joseph R., Jr. "Intervention in Communal Conflicts." Orbis, Vol. 39, Spring 1995, pp. 259-273.

Ruggie, John G. "Wandering in the Void: Charting the U.N.'s New Strategic Role." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, November-December 1993, pp. 26-31.

Samuels, Gertrude. "Peace Problems at the UN." New Leader, Vol. 76, 15-29 November 1993, pp. 13-14.

Samuels, Gertrude. "Second Chance for the United Nations." New Leader, Vol. 75, 7 September 1992, pp. 3-5.

"Security Council Discusses Supplement to _Agenda for Peace_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, pp. 34-36.

Segal, David R. "Five Phases of United Nations Peacekeeping: An Evolutionary Typology." Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Vol. 23, Summer 1995, pp. 65-79.

"Shamed Are the Peacekeepers." Economist, Vol. 331, 30 April 1994, pp. 15-16.

UN peacekeeping forces.

Shaw, Carolyn M. "Regional Peacekeeping: An Alternative to United Nations Operations?" Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 15, Fall 1995, pp. 59-81.

Shultz, Richard H. "Peace Operations: Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Restoration-Assistance Missions." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 2-6.

Stiles, Kendall W., and MacDonald, MaryEllen. "After Consensus, What? Performance Criteria for the UN in the Post-Cold War Era." Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 29, August 1992, pp. 299-311.

Thakur, Ramesh. "The United Nations in a Changing World." Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, March 1993, pp. 7-20.

"The 38th Floor: An Agenda for Peace." UN Chronicle, Vol. 29, September 1992, pp. 2-4.

"The 38th Floor: Assembly Elaborates on _Agenda for Peace_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 2-3.

"The 38th Floor: Security Council Concludes _Agenda for Peace_ Meetings." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 2-3.

"The 38th Floor: Security Council Considers _An Agenda for Peace_ Proposals." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 2-3.

Tharoor, Shashi. "Should UN Peacekeeping Go _Back to Basics_?" Survival, Vol. 37, Winter 1995-1996, pp. 52-64.

Toscano, Roberto. "Peacekeeping in the New International Situation." International Spectator, Vol. 28, January-March 1993, pp. 47-60

"The United Nations: Heart of Gold, Limbs of Clay." Economist, Vol. 327, 12 June 1993, pp. 21-24.

"UN Operations: Not Only Expanding, But Breaking New Ground." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 42-45.

"United Nations Peacekeeping." Economist, Vol. 331, 25 June 1994, pp. 19-22.

"United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: History, Resources, Missions, and Components." International Defense Review, 1995, special issue entitled "Defense '95," pp. 119-127.

Urquhart, Brian. "An Interview: The Man in the Middle." Interview by Lance Morrow. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 48-51.

Urquhart, Brian. "The United Nations in 1992: Problems and Opportunities." International Affairs, Vol. 68, April 1992, pp. 311-319.

Vos, Henk, and Bilbray, James H. "Peacekeeping and the New International Environment." Officer, Vol. 71, June 1995, pp. 41-46.

Watson, Russell. "Perils of Peacekeeping." Newsweek, Vol. 121, 15 February 1993, pp. 34-35.

Weiss, Thomas G. "Intervention: Whither the United Nations?" Washington Quarterly, Vol. 17, Winter 1994, pp. 109-128.

Weiss, Thomas G. "New Challenges for UN Military Operations: Implementing an Agenda for Peace." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 16, Winter 1993, pp. 51-66.

Weiss, Thomas G. "UN Military Operations After the Cold War: Some Conceptual Problems." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 5-9.

White, Nigel D. "U.N. Peacekeeping-Development or Destruction?" International Relations, Vol. 12, April 1994, pp. 129-158.

Whitman, Jim, and Bartholomew, Ian. "Collective Control of UN Peace Support Operations: A Policy Proposal." Security Dialogue, Vol. 25, March 1994, pp. 77-92.

NATIONAL VIEWS ON PEACEKEEPING:

PERSPECTIVES, GUIDELINES, AND POLICIES

Books and Documents

American Society of International Law. International Legal Materials. Vol. 33, No. 3. Washington: May 1994. (JX68 .A6 May 1994)

Pp. 795-813: "United States: Administration Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations."

Pp. 814-820: "United States: Department of Defense Statement on Peacekeeping."

Pp. 821-829: "United States: Department of State Statement on the Legal Authority for UN Peace Operations."

Aspin, Les. Report on the Bottom-Up Review. Washington: US Department of Defense, October 1993. 109pp. (UA23.3 .A762 1993)

Pp. 8-9: "Peacekeeping, Peace Enforcement, and Other Intervention Operations."

P. 75: "Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Operations."

Chayes, Antonia H., and Raach, George T., eds. Peace Operations: Developing an American Strategy. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1995. 178pp. (UA23 .P377 1995)

Clinton, William J. The Clinton Administration's Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. Washington: White House, May 1994. 15pp. (JX1981 .P7C55 1994)

Executive Summary of Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Clinton, William J. A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement. Washington: White House, February 1995. 33pp. Pp. 16-17: "Peace Operations." (UA10.5 .U659 1995)

Clinton, William J. A Time for Peace: Promoting Peace: The Policy of the United States. Washington: Executive Office of the President, February 1995. 22pp. (UA23 .T55 1995)

Fennell, G. Keith. The United States' Role in Peacekeeping Operations in the New World Order. Research Report. Maxwell Air Force Base: US Air University, Air War College, April 1992. Microfiche, 20pp. (Micro. Rm. UG635.3 .U5 RR-92 F25)

Harrison, Selig S., and Nishihara, Masashi, eds. UN Peacekeeping: Japanese and American Perspectives. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1995. 178pp. (JX1981 .P7U41 1995)

Holmes, Kim R., ed. A Safe and Prosperous America: A U.S. Foreign and Defense Policy Blueprint. 2d ed. Washington: Heritage Foundation, June 1994. 83pp. Pp. 72-75: "The Pentagon and Peacekeeping." (E885 .S23 1994)

Holt, Victoria K. Briefing Book on Peacekeeping: The U.S. Role in United Nations Peace Operations. 2d ed. Washington: Council for a Livable World Education Fund, 1995. 32pp. (JX1981 .P7H64 1995)

Keenan, Leo E., III. United States Peacekeeping Operations: The Need for Policy and Procedures. Student Paper. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, 31 March 1993. 33pp. (AD-A263-545)

Kohler, Jeffrey B. Peace-Enforcement: Mission, Strategy, and Doctrine. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1993. 58pp. (U415 .A42 93 K64)

Lewis, Leviticus A. Collective Security vs. U.S. Defense Policy. Newport: US Naval War College, June 1993. 62pp. (V420 .L49 1993)

Lewis, William H., ed. United Nations Peace Operations: Recent Hands-on Experience. Washington: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1994. 38pp. Pp. 5-14: "U.S. Attitudes toward Multilateral Command and Control of Peace Operations: Political Dimensions," by William H. Durch. (JX1981 .P7U534 1994)

Lowenthal, Mark M. Peacekeeping in Future U.S. Foreign Policy. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 10 May 1994. 43pp. (JX1981 .P7L61 1994)

Magyar, Karl P., ed. Challenge and Response: Anticipating US Military Security Concerns. Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University Press, August 1994. 431pp. Pp. 259-276: "Supporting United Nations and Regional Peacekeeping Efforts," by James S. Corum. (UG633 .C49 1994)

Mansell, Paul. The Ambivalence of the US to United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. London: Brassey's, 1994. 47pp. (U1 .L66 no. 24)

Mott, William H., IV. Keeping Peacekeeping Operations in Perspective. Landpower Essay Series No. 94-6. Arlington: Association of the United States Army, Institute of Land Warfare, 1994. 7pp. (UA23 .A95L15 94-6)

Petrie, John N., ed. Essays on Strategy XII. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1994. 415pp. Pp. 371-389: "The Helmets May Be Blue, But the Blood's Still Red: The Dilemma of U.S. Participation in UN Peace Operations," by Robert D. Warrington. (U162 .E87 1994a)

Also in Comparative Strategy, Vol. 14, January-March 1995, pp. 23-34. (Periodical)

Pfaltzgraff, Robert L., Jr., and Shultz, Richard H., Jr., eds. Ethnic Conflict and Regional Instability: Implications for US Policy and Army Roles and Missions. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1994. 359pp. (U413 .A66E85 1994)

Pp. 105-109: "US Support for UN Peacekeeping Operations," by Richard A. Clarke.

Pp. 241-247: "Military Support for Peacekeeping Operations," by Barry McCaffrey.

Quinn, Dennis J., ed. Peace Support Operations and the U.S. Military. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1994. 235pp. Part 2: "Peace Support Operations: Policy Perspectives." (U411 .I6P41 1994)

Rubel, John P. Employment of U.S. Forces as Part of Mandated United Nations Peacekeeping and Peacemaking Operations. Newport: US Naval War College, Department of Operations, 10 March 1993. 28pp. (V420 .R82 1993)

Smith, Hugh, ed. Peacekeeping: Challenges for the Future. Canberra: Australian Defence Force Academy, Australian Defence Studies Centre, 1993. 229pp. Pp. 139-144: "The US Army Approach to Peacekeeping Support Operations," by Robert L. Ord, III. (JX1981 .P7S56 1993)

Snow, Donald M. Peacekeeping, Peacemaking and Peace-Enforcement: The U.S. Role in the New International Order. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, February 1993. 40pp. (U413 .A66S63 1993)

Spara, Jeffrey L. Peacekeeping and FM 100-5: Do They Match? Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 13 May 1994. 63pp. (U415 .A42 94 S61)

Taylor, Clarence E. Does the Army Have a Peacekeeping Doctrine for the 1990's. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1992. 64pp. (U415 .A42 92 T19)

US Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations, and Human Rights. U.S. Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Activities. Hearings, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993. 136pp. (CIS Microfiche 1994 H381-45)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Coalition Defense and Reinforcing Forces. International Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement. Hearing, 103d Cong., 1st Sess. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1993. 74pp. (CIS Microfiche 1994 S201-8)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Coalition Defense and Reinforcing Forces. United Nations Peace Operations. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1994. 83pp. (CIS Microfiche 1995 S201-9)

US Department of State, and US Department of Defense. Congressional Presentation for Promoting Peace, FY 1995. Washington: 1994. 1 vol. (UA12 .C657 FY1995)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-5: Operations. Washington: 14 June 1993. P. 13-7: "Peacekeeping Operations." (Mil. Pubs.)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-20: Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. Washington: 5 December 1990. Pp. 4-1 to 4-10: "Peacekeeping Operations." (Mil. Pubs.)

US Department of the Army. Field Manual 100-23: Peace Operations. Washington: 30 December 1994. 131pp. (Mil. Pubs.)

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Information on U.S. and U.N. Activities: Briefing Report to Congressional Committees. Washington: February 1995. 40pp. (JX1981 .P7U535 1995)

US General Accounting Office. Peacekeeping: Assessment of U.S. Participation in the Multinational Force and Observers: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: August 1995. 66pp. (JX1981 .P7U536 1995)

US Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Pub 3-07.3: Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Peacekeeping Operations. Washington: 29 April 1994. (Mil. Pubs.)

US Joint Warfighting Center. Joint Task Force Commander's Handbook for Peace Operations. Fort Monroe: 28 February 1995. 1 vol. (UA23.7 .J65 1995)

Periodical Articles

Adams, Martin P. "Peace Enforcement versus American Strategic Culture." Strategic Review, Vol. 23, Winter 1995, pp. 14-22.

"Administration Policy Decisions on Peacekeeping Operations." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5, July-August 1994, pp. 72-77, 80.

Albright, Madeleine K. "Advancing American Interests through the United Nations." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, 20 February 1995, pp. 125-130.

Albright, Madeleine K. "Myths of Peace-Keeping." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 4, 28 June 1993, pp. 464-467.

Albright, Madeleine K.; Lake, Anthony; and Clark, Wesley. "The Clinton Administration's Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 16 May 1994, pp. 315-321.

Also in DISAM Journal, Vol. 16, Summer 1994, pp. 42-54.

Arnold, David, and Mitchum, Albert. "A Note on the United Nations' Best Laid Plans: Now What?" Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, Vol. 22, November-December 1994, pp. 10-11.

Atkins, Arthur G. "New Presidential Directive Gives U.S. Peacekeeping Guidelines." Arms Control Today, Vol. 24, June 1994, p. 26.

About Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Barnes, Fred. "Low Priority for UN Peace Operations." Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, Vol. 21, August-September 1994, pp. 28-29.

Summary of President Clinton's directive concerning support of UN peace operations.

Bennet, Douglas, Jr. "Peace-Keeping and Multilateral Relations in U.S. Foreign Policy." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 5 December 1994, pp. 808-810.

Berdal, Mats R. "Fateful Encounter: The United States and UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Spring 1994, pp. 30-50.

Blechman, Barry M. "The Intervention Dilemma." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 18, Summer 1995, pp. 63-73.

Bloomfield, Lincoln P. "Policing World Disorder." World Monitor, Vol. 6, February 1993, pp. 34-37.

US moving away from go-it-alone ventures.

Boyd, Morris J. "Peace Operations: A Capstone Doctrine." Military Review, Vol. 75, May-June 1995, pp. 20-29.

Focuses on US Army peace operations doctrine and Army Field Manual 100-23.

Christopher, Warren. "American Leadership and Effective UN Peace-keeping." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, 30 January 1995, pp. 59-61.

Cimbala, Stephen J. "Military Persuasion and the American Way of War." Strategic Review, Vol. 22, Fall 1994, pp. 33-43.

Clarke, John L. "Which Forces for What Peace Ops?" Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 121, February 1995, pp. 46-48.

"Clinton Calls for Honest Look at U.N.'s Global Challenges." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol. 51, 2 October 1993, pp. 2679-2682.

Text of President Clinton's address to the UN General Assembly on 27 September 1993.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on Reform of United Nations Peacekeeping." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 31, 20 February 1995, pp. 240-241.

Clinton, William J. "Peacekeeping Operations." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 18 April 1994, pp. 816-817.

Clinton, William J. "Remarks to the 48th Session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, September 27, 1993." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 29, 4 October 1993, pp. 1901-1908.

Cowin, Andrew J. "Expanding United Nations Peacekeeping Role Poses Risk for America." Backgrounder, No. 917, 13 October 1992, entire issue.

Includes chart, "History of U.N. Peacekeeping Operations," pp. 5-6.

Curtis, Willie. "The Inevitable Slide into Coercive Peacemaking: The US Role in the New World Order." Defense Analysis, Vol. 10, December 1994, pp. 305-321.

Dean, Jonathan. "A Stronger U.N. Strengthens America." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 45-51, 53-54.

Doherty, Carroll J. "United Nations' Newfound Muscle Relieves, Worries Washington." Cover Story. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, Vol. 51, 6 March 1993, pp. 525-529.

Donovan, James A. "The United Nations-Its Roles and Missions for American Armed Forces." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 79, July 1995, pp. 68-74.

Eikenberry, Karl W. "The Challenges of Peacekeeping." Army, Vol. 43, September 1993, pp. 14-20.

Issues surrounding US participation in peacekeeping missions.

Elliott, Michael. "High Hurdles and Low Moans." Newsweek, Vol. 122, 11 October 1993,

p. 39.

US involvement in peacekeeping.

Farrell, Theo. "Sliding into War: The Somalia Imbroglio and US Army Peace Operations Doctrine." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Summer 1995, pp. 194-214.

Hillen, John F., III. "Peacekeeping Is Hell: America Unlearns the Lessons of Vietnam." Policy Review, No. 66, Fall 1993, pp. 36-39.

Hitchens, Theresa. "Clinton Redirects Peacekeeping Policy." Defense News, Vol. 9, 7-13 February 1994, pp. 4, 45.

Hitchens, Theresa. "U.S. Doubts Ability of U.N. to Conduct Peacekeeping." Defense News, Vol. 8, 8-14 November 1993, pp. 3, 34.

Isaacs, John. "A Confederation of Caution." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 50, July-August 1994, pp. 14-15.

Discusses President Clinton's peacekeeping guidelines.

"Keeping the Peace & Promoting Democracy." Defense 94, No. 6, 1994, pp. 15-19.

From the White House's A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement.

(UA10.5 .U659 1994)

Killebrew, Robert B. "Combat Peacekeeping: Fashioning an American Approach to Intervention Operations." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 133, October 1995, pp. 34-36.

Kirschten, Dick. "Missions Impossible." National Journal, Vol. 25, 30 October 1993, pp. 2576-2580.

Growing US reluctance to participate in UN peacekeeping missions.

Kull, Steven. "Misreading the Public Mood." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 55-59.

Levin, Carl. "Restoring the Vision: A Presidential Directive Enhances the Role of the United Nations." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 132, August 1994, p. 47.

Focuses on President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Lichenstein, Charles M. "We Aren't the World: An Exit Strategy from U.N. Peacekeeping." Policy Review, No. 72, Spring 1995, pp. 62-67.

Linn, Thomas C. "U.S. Forces in Peacekeeping Operations: Implications for Force Planning." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Fall 1993, pp. 72-77.

Matthews, William. "Clinton: Bosnia a _Defining Moment_." Army Times, 1 January 1996,

p. 3.

Matthews, William. "Clinton's Vow: No More Open-Ended Peace Operations for the U.S." Army Times, 23 May 1994, p. 26.

Morrison, David C. "Wanted: Peacekeeping Policy." National Journal, Vol. 25, 27 November 1993, p. 2859.

US role in UN peacekeeping missions.

"Mr. Clinton at the UN." National Review, Vol. 45, 18 October 1993, pp. 18-19.

Discusses the President's address on 27 September 1993.

Peck, Steven. "US Peacekeeping Policy: An Update." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, January-February 1994, pp. 10-11.

Phillips-Beaudan, Eric. "Peacekeeping Woes." Retired Officer, Vol. 50, July 1994, pp. 36-42. Recent failures in Somalia, Bosnia, and Rwanda are forcing the US to reexamine its role in future UN peacekeeping operations.

Rodman, Peter W. "Declarations of Dependence?" National Review, Vol. 46, 13 June 1994, pp. 32-34.

Focuses on President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Roos, John G. "The Perils of Peacekeeping: Tallying the Costs in Blood, Coin, Prestige, and Readiness." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 133, December 1993, pp. 13-17.

US involvement in peace-related activities.

Ruggie, John G. "Peacekeeping and U.S. Interests." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 17, Autumn 1994, pp. 175-184.

Sewall, John O.B. "Implications for U.N. Peacekeeping." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 3, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 29-33.

US involvement in UN peacekeeping.

Sewall, Sarah B. "Peace Operations: A Department of Defense Perspective." SAIS Review, Vol. 15, Winter-Spring 1995, pp. 113-133.

Shalikashvili, John M. "The Mandate for American Involvement Abroad: Building the Armed Forces for the Future." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 61, 1 July 1995, pp. 550-552.

"The Shifting Priorities of U.S. Foreign Policy; Peacekeeping Downgraded." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, January-April 1994, pp. 43-58.

Selected official statements and documents focusing on US role in UN peacekeeping missions.

Starr, Barbara. "USA Urges Six-Point Peacekeeping Plan." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 21, 28 May 1994, p. 8.

"Statement by the Press Secretary on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations, May 5, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 9 May 1994, p. 998.

Regarding President Clinton's Presidential Decision Directive 25.

Summers, Harry G., Jr. "U.S. Participation in U.N. Peacekeeping Organizations." Strategic Review, Vol. 21, Fall 1993, pp. 69-72.

Statement before Congress, 21 September 1993.

Thiesen, Bruce. "U.N. Peacekeeping Wrongly Endangers Our Troops." American Legion, Vol. 135, December 1993, pp. 10, 64.

Wisner, Frank G. "Peacekeeping: Why, When, How & How Long?" Defense 93, No. 6, 1993, pp. 23-27.

Based on a prepared statement to the Coalition Defense and Reinforcing Forces Subcom-mittee, Senate Armed Services Committee, 14 July 1993.Also in Defense Issues, Vol. 8, No. 46, 1993, entire issue.

Wittes, Benjamin. "The Politics of Peacekeeping." New Leader, Vol. 77, 9-23 May 1994, pp. 10-11.

Discusses Presidential Decision Directive 25.

PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS AROUND THE WORLD, PAST AND PRESENT

MAPS AND LISTS

"Better There Than Not." Map. Economist, Vol. 331, 30 April 1994, p. 52. (Periodical)

Dated March 1994, this UN map includes number of troops, annual cost, and date sent.

"Completed and Current UN Peacekeeping Operations as of October 1994." International Defense Review, 1995, special issue entitled "Defense '95," p. 121. (Periodical)

"Current Peacekeeping Operations." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, November-December 1994, p. 19. (Periodical)

Includes UN map dated June 1994.

"Embattled." Map. Economist, Vol. 331, 25 June 1994, p. 19. (Periodical)

Includes number of people, mission beginning date, and annual cost as of 31 May 1994.

International Institute for Strategic Studies. The Military Balance, 1994-1995. London: 1994. 287pp. Pp. 268-277: "Peacekeeping Operations." (UA15 .I5 1994)

Provides missions, strength, cost, composition for various peacekeeping operations.

"Peacekeeping: Mission Updates (April-June 1995)." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Autumn 1995, pp. 413-416. (Periodical)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 53-61: "Appendix 1A: International Observer and Peacekeeping Operations, 1993," by Paul Claesson. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

"Summary of Personnel Contributions to UN Peacekeeping Operations by Countries." Table. Regular feature in each bi-monthly issue of Peacekeeping & International Relations. (Periodical)

"UN Peace-Keeping: Around the World." Map. UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 40-41. (Periodical)

"UN Peacekeeping Operations 1948 to Present." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 27-29. (Periodical)

Appendix to "Putting the Peace Back into Peacekeeping: Theory Must Inform Practice," by A.B. Fetherston.

"United Nations Peacekeeping Operations - 1995." DISAM Journal, Vol. 18, Fall 1995, pp. 24-30. (Periodical)

US Central Intelligence Agency. Directorate of Intelligence. Worldwide Peacekeeping Operations, 1994. Washington: February 1994. 1 folded map. (JX1981 .P7W56 1994)

AFRICA

Books and Documents

Alexander, McGill. An African Rapid-Deployment Force for Peace Operations on the African Continent. Fort Leavenworth: Foreign Military Studies Office, 1995. 14pp. (U415 .F5A54 1995)

Allard, C. Kenneth. Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1995. 113pp. (DT403.25 .A44 1995)

Betancourt, Jose L. The Fine Line Between Peacekeeping and War. Executive Research Project S5. Fort McNair: National Defense University, Industrial College of the Armed Forces, April 1994. 30pp. (U428 .I52E9 S5)

Somalia.

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 4: "Peacekeeping in Africa." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Harman, Joan. Peacekeeping in Somalia. Research Report 1663. Alexandria: US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, July 1994. 1 vol. (UH723 .H26 1994)

Hirsch, John L., and Oakley, Robert B. Somalia and OPERATION RESTORE HOPE: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995. 217pp. (JX1981 .P7H57 1995)

Lyons, Terrence, and Samatar, Ahmed I. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1995. 99pp. (DT407 .L9 1995)

Rikhye, Indar J. Military Adviser to the Secretary-General: U.N. Peacekeeping and the Congo Crisis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 355pp. (JX1981 .P7R527 1992)

Smock, David R., ed. Making War and Waging Peace: Foreign Intervention in Africa. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1993. 290pp. Pp. 263-269: "Strengthening African Peacemaking and Peacekeeping," by Chester A. Crocker. (DT30.5 .M26 1993)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

Pp. 85-104: "The UN Operation in Somalia," by Robert G. Patman.

Pp. 105-119: "UN Peacekeeping in Africa," by Samuel M. Makinda.

US European Command. OPERATION SUPPORT HOPE 1994 After Action Review. N.p.: 1995. 1 vol. (DT450.435 .O63 1995)

Rwanda and Zaire.

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Withdrawal of U.S. Troops from Somalia: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: 9 June 1994. 11pp. (UA16 .U531 1994)

Weller, Marc, ed. Regional Peace-Keeping and International Enforcement: The Liberian Crisis. New York: Grotius, 1994. 465pp. (DT636.5 .R44 1994)

Periodical Articles

Adebajo, Adekeye. "The UN's Unknown Effort." Africa Report, Vol. 40, March-April 1995, pp. 60-63.

In Western Sahara.

Albright, Madeleine K. "The Tragedy in Rwanda: International Cooperation to Find a Solution." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 27 June 1994, pp. 438-439.

Alexander, Ian. "There Oughta Be a Law." National Review, Vol. 46, 7 February 1994, pp. 32-33.

Some lessons from US involvement in Somalia.

Allard, C. Kenneth. "Lessons Unlearned: Somalia and Joint Doctrine." Joint Force Quarterly, Vol. 95, Autumn 1995, pp. 105-109.

Anglin, Douglas G. "The Life and Death of South Africa's National Peacekeeping Force." Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 33, March 1995, pp. 21-52.

Anstee, Margaret J. "Angola: The Forgotten Tragedy: A Test Case for U.N. Peacekeeping." International Relations, Vol. 11, December 1993, pp. 495-511.

Antal, John F., and Dunaway, Robert L. "Peacemaking in Somalia: A Background Brief." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, February 1993, pp. 38-43.

Arnold, S.L. "Somalia: An Operation Other Than War." Military Review, Vol. 73, December 1993, pp. 26-35.

Arnold, S.L., and Stahl, David T. "A Power Projection Army in Operations Other Than War." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 4-26.

Somalia.

Bolton, John R. "Wrong Turn in Somalia." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, January-February 1994, pp. 56-66.

Bryden, Matthew. "Somalia: The Wages of Failure." Current History, Vol. 94, April 1995, pp. 145-151.

Burkhalter, Holly J. "The Question of Genocide: The Clinton Administration and Rwanda." World Policy Journal, Vol. 11, Winter 1994-1995, pp. 44-54.

Chopra, Jarat. "Breaking the Stalemate in Western Sahara." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Autumn 1994, pp. 303-319.

Clarke, Walter S. "Testing the World's Resolve in Somalia." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 42-58.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on Somalia, March 1, 1995." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 31, 6 March 1995, p. 338.

Clinton, William J. "Memorandum on Assistance to Peacekeeping Efforts in Liberia, May 16, 1995." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 31, 22 May 1995, pp. 841-842.

Crigler, T. Frank. "The Peace-Enforcement Dilemma." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 64-70.

Somalia.

Crocker, Chester A. "The Lessons of Somalia: Not Everything Went Wrong." Foreign Affairs, Vol. 74, May-June 1995, pp. 2-8.

Dallaire, Romeo A., and Poulin, Bruce. "UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda]: Mission to Rwanda." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 7, Spring 1995, pp. 66-71.

De Waal, Alex, and Omaar, Rakiya. "The Genocide in Rwanda and the International Response." Current History, Vol. 94, April 1995, pp. 156-161.

Diehl, Paul F., and Jurado, Sonia R. "United Nations Election Supervision in South Africa: Lessons from the Namibian Peacekeeping Experience." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 16, January-March 1993, pp. 61-74.

Dorn, A. Walter, and Bell, David J.H. "Intelligence and Peacekeeping: The UN Operation in the Congo, 1960-64." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Spring 1995, pp. 11-33.

Durch, William J. "Building on Sand: UN Peacekeeping in the Western Sahara." International Security, Vol. 17, Spring 1993, pp. 151-171.

Finnegan, William. "A World of Dust." New Yorker, Vol. 71, 20 March 1995, pp. 64-77.

Somalia after the UN pulled out.

Fleischman, Janet. "An Uncivil War." Africa Report, Vol. 38, May-June 1993, pp. 56-59. Liberia.

"_Fundamental Review_ of UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Follows Violence." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 51-54.

Gibbs, David N. "Dag Hammarskjold, the United Nations, and the Congo Crisis of 1960-1: A Reinterpretation." Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 31, March 1993, pp. 163-174.

Gibbs, Nancy. "Why? The Killing Fields of Rwanda." Cover Story. Time, Vol. 143, 16 May 1994, pp. 56-63.

Gilkes, Patrick. "From Peace-Keeping to Peace Enforcement: The Somalia Precedent." Middle East Report, No. 185, November-December 1993, pp. 21-24.

Hayden, H. Thomas. "Somalia-What Went Wrong?" Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 50-52.

Hoar, Joseph P. "A CINC's Perspective." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 56-63.

US Central Command's Commander-in-Chief's survey of Somalia.

Houdek, Robert. "Statement by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Robert Houdek, February 17, 1993." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 3, May-June 1993, pp. 44-45.

Somalia.

Howe, Jonathan T. "The United States and United Nations in Somalia: The Limits of Involvement." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 18, Summer 1995, pp. 49-62.

Huband, Mark. "The Politics of Violence." Africa Report, Vol. 38, September-October 1993, pp. 13-19.

Somalia.

Huband, Mark. "When Yankee Goes Home." Africa Report, Vol. 38, March-April 1993, pp. 20-23.

Somalia.

Hume, Brit. "The Making of a Quagmire." National Review, Vol. 45, 1 November 1993, pp. 21-22.

Somalia.

Isaacs, Dan. "Watching and Waiting." Africa Report, Vol. 38, July-August 1993, pp. 40-43.

Mozambique.

James, Alan. "The Congo Controversies." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 44-58.

Jespersen, David M. "Coalition Logistics in Somalia." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, April 1994, pp. 32-34.

Kendrick, William A. "Peacekeeping Operations in Somalia." Infantry, Vol. 85, May-June 1995, pp. 31-35.

Knigge, Timothy M. "LNOing [US liaison officer teams in Somalia] United Nations Style." Field Artillery, August 1994, pp. 26-28.

Lechowich, Richard A. "Forlorn Hope: U.S. Military Operations in Somalia, 1993-94." Strategy & Tactics, No. 170, September-October 1994, pp. 65-74.

Leitenberg, Milton. "Rwanda, 1994: International Incompetence Produces Genocide." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, November-December 1994, pp. 6-10.

Lloyd, Robert B. "Mozambique: The Terror of War, the Tensions of Peace." Current History, Vol. 94, April 1995, pp. 152-155.

Lorenz, F.M. "Law and Anarchy in Somalia." Parameters, Vol. 23, Winter 1993-1994, pp. 27-41.

McCormick, Shawn H. "The Lessons of Intervention in Africa." Current History, Vol. 94, April 1995, pp. 162-166.

Makinda, Samuel M. "Somalia: From Humanitarian Intervention to Military Offensive?" World Today, Vol. 49, October 1993, pp. 184-186.

"Mandate for UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Revised: _Coercive Methods_ Not to Be Used." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, June 1994, pp. 13-15.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Marnika, Maurice. "The Challenge for Peacemaking in Africa: Conflict Prevention and Con- flict Resolution." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, July-August 1995, p. 5.

Marnika, Maurice. "Rwanda and UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda]-The Backlash to Ethnic Slaughter." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, July-August 1995, p. 14.

"Massacres, _Mindless Violence and Carnage_ Rage in Rwanda: Council Expands UNAMIR [UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda] Mandate, Imposes Arms Embargo." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 15-20.

Menkhaus, Ken, and Lyons, Terrence. "What Are the Lessons to Be Learned from Somalia?" CSIS Africa Notes, No. 144, January 1993, entire issue.

Metz, Steven, and Kievit, James. "Learning from Rwanda." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 7, Spring 1995, pp. 105-108.

Michael, Stephen. "CSS [Combat Service Support] Operations in Somalia." Infantry, Vol. 84, July-August 1994, pp. 29-33.

Moreno, Rafael, and Vega, Juan J. "Lessons from Somalia." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, May-June 1994, pp. 11-12.

Oakley, Robert B. "An Envoy's Perspective." Joint Force Quarterly, No. 2, Autumn 1993, pp. 44-55.

President Clinton's Special Envoy for Somalia.

Oakley, Robert B. "Somalia Lessons Invaluable for U.S. and U.N." Army Times, 4 April 1994, p. 33.

Oakley, Robert B., and Bentley, David. "Peace Operations: A Comparison of Somalia and Haiti." Strategic Forum, No. 30, May 1995, entire issue.

Oladimeji, Olutunde A. "Behold, African Peacekeepers." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 119, March 1993, pp. 64-66.

"OPERATION RESTORE HOPE." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 13-16.

Somalia.

Page, M.B. "Somalia: Background and Prospects." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, October 1993, pp. 6-14.

Pfeiffer, Tom. "U.S. Hands Over Somali Mission to New UN Peacekeeping Force." Arms Control Today, Vol. 23, June 1993, pp. 28, 34.

"Rwanda: Short Memories." Economist, Vol. 335, 17 June 1995, pp. 42-47.

"Rwanda's Agony: Can Horrors Be Prevented?" Cover Story. World Press Review, Vol. 41, September 1994, pp. 10-15.

Scanlon, Kevin J. "Peacekeeping in the Sahara." Army Logistician, May-June 1995, p. 32-35.

Sesay, Max A. "Collective Security or Collective Disaster? Regional Peace-Keeping in West Africa." Security Dialogue, Vol. 26, June 1995, pp. 205-222.

Shepherd, Anne. "Keeping the Peace." Africa Report, Vol. 38, July-August 1993, pp. 56-59.

South Africa.

Shepherd, Anne. "Vetting the Vote." Africa Report, Vol. 38, November-December 1993, pp. 22-25.

South Africa.

"Somalia: After Clinton's Boys Go Home." Economist, Vol. 330, 5 February 1994, pp. 38-43.

"Somalia Policy Debate: Walk, Don't Run, to the Nearest Exit, August 27-October 7, 1993." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, November-December 1993, pp. 17-35.

"Somalia: The End of the Chapter." Economist, Vol. 331, 2 April 1994, pp. 42-44.

"Somalia: What Went Wrong." Cover Story. U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 115, 18 October 1993, pp. 30-37.

Stanton, Martin N. "A Riot in Wanwaylen: Lessons Learned." Army, Vol. 44, December 1994, pp. 24-30.

Somalia.

Stearns, Scott. "The OAU's [Organization of African Unity] Peace-Keepers." Africa Report, Vol. 39, January-February 1994, p. 35.

Stevenson, Jonathan. "Hope Restored in Somalia?" Foreign Policy, No. 91, Summer 1993, pp. 138-154.

Thakur, Ramesh. "From Peacekeeping to Peace Enforcement: The UN Operation in Somalia." Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 32, September 1994, pp. 387-410.

"30,000-Strong UN Force Steps in to _Restore Hope_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, June 1993, pp. 13-17.

Somalia.

"United Nations and Somalia: Orderly Retreat, with Luck." Economist, Vol. 334, 4 February 1995, p. 36.

"U.N. Forces Withdraw from Somalia." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5, May-June 1995, pp. 36-38.

"UN Operation in Full Swing; Force of 6,000 Deployed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 25-26.

Mozambique.

"UN Peace-Keepers to Withdraw by End of March 1995." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, March 1995, pp. 24-25.

Somalia.

"U.N. Troops, Strongly Supported by U.S. Forces, Respond to Attacks by Followers of Somali Warlord." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, July-August 1993, pp. 26-28.

"UNOSOM [UN Operation in Somalia] Objectives Affirmed, Despite Continuing Violence." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 24-27.

"UNOSOM [UN Operation in Somalia] Withdrawal Completed _Virtually without a Hitch_: UN Efforts Save a Quarter Million Lives." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, pp. 14-17.

"UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Mandate Extended: Mission's Future Pondered." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, December 1994, pp. 16-17.

"UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Mandate Renewed, Humanitarian Aspect Stressed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 21-23.

"UNOSOM II [UN Operation in Somalia] Takes _Decisive Action_ to Restore Peace: Killing of 24 Peace-Keepers Is Biggest Single UN Loss Ever." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 4-7.

Venter, Al. "Testing the Waters: United Nations Operation in Somalia Leads the Way Towards More African _Rescue Missions_." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, May 1993, pp. 360-363.

Verrier, Anthony. "Peacekeeping or Peacemaking? The Commonwealth Monitoring Force, Southern Rhodesia-Zimbabwe, 1979-1980." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Winter 1994, pp. 440-461.

Vowels, Lawrence G., and Witsken, Jeffrey R. "Peacekeeping with Light Cavalry." Armor, Vol. 103, September-October 1994, pp. 26-30.

10th Mountain Division's 3d Squadron, 17th Cavalry in Somalia.

Willett, Susan. "Ostriches, Wise Old Elephants and Economic Reconstruction in Mozambique." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Spring 1995, pp. 34-55.

Wison, D.J. "Psychological Operations in Somalia." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 107, July-August 1994, pp. 35-42.

Wurst, Jim. "Mozambique Disarms." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 50, September-October 1994, pp. 36-39.

ASIA

Books and Documents

Doyle, Michael W. UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC's Civil Mandate. Boulder: Rienner, 1995. 117pp. (JX1981 .P7D68 1995)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 3: "Peacekeeping in South and Southeast Asia." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Heininger, Janet E. Peacekeeping in Transition: The United Nations in Cambodia. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1994. 183pp. (JX1981 .P7H45 1994)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. Pp. 121-140: "The UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia," by Carlyle A.Thayer. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

United Nations. Department of Public Information. The United Nations and Cambodia, 1991-1995. United Nations Blue Books Series, Vol. 2. New York: 1995. 352pp. (JX1977.2 .A1B59 v.2)

Periodical Articles

Acharya, Amitav. "Cambodia, the United Nations and the Problems of Peace." Pacific Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1994, pp. 297-308.

Adolph, Robert B., Jr. "U.N. Military Civic Action in Cambodia." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, July 1994, pp. 12-18.

Akashi, Yasushi. "The Challenge of Peacekeeping in Cambodia." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 204-215.

Akashi, Yasushi. "To Build a New Country: The Task of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia." Harvard International Review, Vol. 15, Winter 1992-1993, pp. 34-35, 68-69.

Amer, Ramses. "The United Nations' Peacekeeping Operation in Cambodia: Overview and Assessment." Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 15, September 1993, pp. 211-231.

Bullion, Alan. "The Indian Peace-Keeping Force in Sri Lanka." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 148-159.

Chanda, Nayan. "UN Divisions." Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 155, 23 July 1992, pp. 8-9.

Signs of Franco-Australian rivalry within peacekeeping force in Cambodia.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

Dommen, Arthur J. "UN Bias and Cambodian Peace." Global Affairs, Vol. 7, Fall 1992, pp. 120-135.

Doyle, Michael W., and Suntharalingam, Nishkala. "The UN in Cambodia: Lessons for Complex Peacekeeping." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 117-147.

Duffy, Terence. "UNTAC's [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia] Mission in Cambodia: Prospects for Democracy and Human Rights." Asian Affairs, Vol. 20, Winter 1994, pp. 218-240.

Evans, Gareth. "Lessons from Peace Keeping in Cambodia." Insight, Vol. 3, 12 September 1994, pp. 5-6, 14.

Evans, Gareth. "Peacekeeping in Cambodia: Lessons Learned." NATO Review, Vol. 42, August 1994, pp. 24-27.

Farris, Karl. "UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: On Balance, A Success." Parameters, Vol. 24, Spring 1994, pp. 38-50.

Ghosh, Amitav. "Holiday in Cambodia: The U.N.'s Strategic Dead End." New Republic, Vol. 208, 28 June 1993, pp. 21-25.

Jennar, Raoul M. "UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia]: _International Triumph_ in Cambodia?" Security Dialogue, Vol. 25, June 1994, pp. 145-156.

Lizee, Pierre. "The Challenge of Conflict Resolution in Cambodia." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 35-44.

"Mandate Ends, UN Presence Diminishes: Violence on Upswing." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 39.

Cambodia.

Mulliner, N. "Cambodia: UK's Substantial Contribution." Army Quarterly & Defence Journal, Vol. 125, January 1995, pp. 20-29.

"Peace Process in Danger of Paralysis." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, pp. 25-27.

Cambodia.

Peang-Meth, Abdulgaffar. "The United Nations Peace Plan, the Cambodian Conflict, and the Future of Cambodia." Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 14, June 1992, pp. 33-46.

Pfeiffer, Tom. "UN Mission Reaches Milestone with Record Cambodian Vote." Arms Control Today, Vol. 23, July-August 1993, pp. 21, 28.

Pilger, John. "A Washing of Hands in Cambodia." New Statesman & Society, 29 October 1993, pp. 14-15.

Prasso, Sheri. "Cambodia: A $3 Billion Boondoggle." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 36-40.

Roberts, David. "Cambodia: Problems of a UN-Brokered Peace." World Today, Vol. 48, July 1992, pp. 129-132.

Saito, Jon. "UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia]: A Success Story?" Asian Defence Journal, No. 5, May 1993, pp. 20-28.

Sanderson, John M. "Peacekeeping Operations in Cambodia." RUSI Journal, Vol. 139, December 1994, pp. 20-26.

Thayer, Nate. "Shattered Peace." Far Eastern Economic Review, Vol. 156, 11 February 1993, pp. 10-11.

Cambodia.

Tombes, Jonathan. "Cambodia: Lessons for UN Peacekeepers." American Enterprise, Vol. 5, May-June 1994, pp. 46-57.

"United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)." Asian Defence Journal, No. 4, April 1993, pp. 28-29.

"UNTAC [UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia] Mandate Ends: New Constitution, Government Welcomed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 16-18.

"Voter Registration a Success; Cease-Fire Violations Continue." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, June 1993, pp. 22-25.

Cambodia.

Wallace, Bruce. "Death Returns to the Killing Fields." Maclean's, Vol. 106, 1 March 1993, pp. 32-36.

Cambodia.

"What the United Nations Learnt in Cambodia." Economist, Vol. 327, 19 June 1993, p. 36.

Yusuf, Isaak. "The Final Phase of the Cambodian Peace Process." Asian Defence Journal, No. 4, April 1993, pp. 26-27, 30.

Yusuf, Isaak. "The United Nations Military Operation in Cambodia." Asian Defence Journal, No. 5, May 1993, pp. 6-19.

EUROPE AND COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

Books and Documents

Allison, Roy. Peacekeeping in the Soviet Successor States. Paris: Western European Union, Institute for Security Studies, November 1994. 63pp. (DK293 .A44 1994)

Bartone, Paul T.; Vaitkus, Mark A.; and Adler, Amy B. Social Psychological Issues in the Adaptation of a US Army Medical Unit to the UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force] Mission. Heidelberg: US Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, 1994. 12pp. (U22.3 .B165 1994)

In the former Yugoslavia.

Blank, Stephen J., ed. Yugoslavia's Wars: The Problem from Hell. Roundtable Report. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1995. 162pp. (U413 .A66Y94 1995)

Finch, Raymond C., III. The Strange Case of Russian Peacekeeping Operations in the Near Abroad, 1992-1994. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Combined Arms Command, Foreign Military Studies Office, 1994. 31pp. (U415 .F5F35 1994)

Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Peacekeeping in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Background Brief. New York: British Information Services, 1995. 8pp. (JX636 .F5 1994 P43)

Hague, K.C. UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]: A Perspective from the Field. Personal Experience Monograph. Carlisle: US Army War College, 1995. 31pp. (AD-A295-010)

Former Yugoslavia.

Kim, Julie. War in the Former Yugoslavia: Chronology of Events, August 16, 1992-May 30, 1993. Washington: US Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 15 June 1993. 38pp. (DR1313 .K56 1995)

Kim, Julie. Yugoslavia: The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and Other Multilateral Missions. CRS Report for Congress. Washington: US Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 19 April 1993. 14pp. (JX1981 .P7K45 1995)

MacKenzie, Lewis. Peacekeeper: The Road to Sarajevo. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1993. 345pp. (U55 .M263A3 1993)

Mosinski, David A. U.N. Peacekeeping in "Yugoslavia": Background, Analysis, and Lessons Learned. Thesis. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, 4 June 1993. 134pp. (U415 .A4 TH M67)

O'Ballance, Edgar. Civil War in Bosnia, 1992-94. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. 269pp. (DR1313.3 .O2 1995)

Sray, John E. U.S. Policy and the Bosnian Civil War: A Time for Reevaluation. Fort Leavenworth: Foreign Military Office, 1995. 10pp. (U415 .F5S71 1995)

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1994. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. 841pp. Pp. 62-80: "Appendix 1B: Case Studies on Peacekeeping: UNOSOM II, UNTAC and UNPROFOR," by Paul Claesson and Trevor Findlay. (JX1974 .S775 1994)

Somalia, Cambodia, and the former Yugoslavia.

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. Pp. 65-84: "The UN Protection Force in Former Yugoslavia," by Susan R. Lamb. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

US Congress. Senate. Committee on Armed Services. Situation in Bosnia and Appropriate U.S. and Western Responses. Hearing, 102d Cong., 2d Sess. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 11 August 1992. 85pp. (DR1313.3 .U53 1992)

US Department of Defense. Bosnia Country Handbook: Peace Implementation Force (IFOR). Washington: December 1995. 1 vol. (UA827 .B67 1995)

Vaitkus, Mark A., and Bartone, Paul T. Attitudes Toward Peacekeeping and Peacemaking Among U.S. Infantry Soldiers Deployed to the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Heidelberg: US Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, 1994. 13pp. (U22.3 .V13 1994)

Periodical Articles

Aikman, Bill. "Seven Days in Sarajevo." Military Engineer, Vol. 86, May 1994, pp. 7-9.

UN spokesperson for the UN Protection Forces Bosnia-Herzegovina Command.

Albright, Madeleine K. "U.S. Support for UN Security Council Resolutions Concerning Bosnia." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 21 November 1994, pp. 778-779.

Auster, Bruce B. "Lost in the Balkans." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 118, 12 June 1995, pp. 34-38.

History of ethnic conflict in the Balkans and issues related to US foreign policy in Bosnia.

Baev, Pavel K. "Peace-Keeping as a Challenge to European Borders." Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, June 1993, pp. 137-150.

Bair, Andrew. "Which End-Game in Bosnia?" Strategic Forum, No. 16, January 1995, entire issue.

Berkowitz, Bruce D. "Rules of Engagement for U.N. Peacekeeping Forces in Bosnia." Orbis, Vol. 38, Fall 1994, pp. 635-646.

"Bombs Over Bosnia." Newsweek, Vol. 125, 5 June 1995, pp. 32-33.

"Bosnia." Economist, Vol. 330, 26 February 1994, pp. 19-22.

"Bosnia-Herzegovina: To the Brink of Stronger Action-And Back." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 4, July-August 1993, pp. 2-25.

Pp. 19-25: "Selected U.N. Security Council Resolutions on Former Yugoslavia."

"Brutal Conflict: _An Affront to the World's Conscience_." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, pp. 28-37.

Yugoslav crisis.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders on Bosnia, May 24, 1995." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 31, 29 May 1995, pp. 898-900.

Coleman, Fred. "Bosnia's Tragedy Continues." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 117, 26 December 1994-2 January 1995, p. 62.

Connaughton, Richard. "Bosnia: NATO Must Learn from Mistakes." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 25, 7 February 1996, pp. 21-22.

Dewar, Michael. "Intervention in Bosnia-The Case Against." World Today, Vol. 49, February 1993, pp. 32-34.

"Europe: A Balkan Quagmire Beckons." Economist, Vol. 335, 3 June 1995, pp. 41-45.

Fetherston, A.B.; Ramsbotham, O.; and Woodhouse, T. "UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]: Some Observations from a Conflict Resolution Perspective." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Summer 1994, pp. 179-203.

In the former Yugoslavia.

Goodby, James E. "Collective Security in Europe After the Cold War." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 299-321.

Goodby, James E. "Peacekeeping in the New Europe." Washington Quarterly, Vol. 15, Spring 1992, pp. 153-171.

Griffiths, D.N. "Waging Peace in Bosnia." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, January 1994, pp. 31-34.

Higgins, Rosalyn. "The New United Nations and Former Yugoslavia." International Affairs, Vol. 69, July 1993, pp. 465-483.

Hribek, Miloslav. "Eyewitness II: Lost in the Yugoslav Triangle: Diary Notes from UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force] Missions." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Summer 1995, pp. 224-245.

In the former Yugoslavia.

Huchthausen, Peter A. "Revisiting the Balkan Cauldron." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, May 1994, pp. 73-76.

Ide, Douglas. "Backing Peace in the Balkans." Soldiers, Vol. 49, March 1994, pp. 13-17.

Langan, John. "Justice or Peace? A Moral Assessment of Humanitarian Intervention in Bosnia." America, Vol. 170, 12 February 1994, pp. 9-14.

Linder, James C. "Myths of the Balkans." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 120, May 1994, pp. 77-78.

MacInnis, John A. "The Rules of Engagement for U.N. Peacekeeping Forces in Former Yugoslavia: A Response." Orbis, Vol. 39, Winter 1995, pp. 97-100.

MacKenzie, Lewis. "Military Realities of UN Peacekeeping Operations." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, February 1993, pp. 21-24.

In the former Yugoslavia.

MacKenzie, Lewis. "Tragic Errors." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 12 December 1994, pp. 34-37.

Former UN commander reviews the hard lessons of Bosnia.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Marks, Edward. "Dynamics of Peacekeeping in Georgia." Strategic Forum, No. 45, September 1995, entire issue.

Marnika, Maurice. "Some Comments on the UN Mandate in the Former Yugoslavia." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, September-October 1993, pp. 9-10.

Marnika, Maurice. "The Unending Predicament in Former Yugoslavia." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, May-June 1995, p. 8.

Marnika, Maurice. "The United Nations in Bosnia-Herzegovina: The Beginning of the End?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, July-August 1995, p. 6.

Matthews, William. "Mission's Scenario: Not a Walk in the Park." Army Times, 13 November 1995, pp. 22-23.

Bosnia.

Matthews, William, and Naylor, Sean D. "Peace Accord Helps Shape Bosnia Mission." Army Times, 4 December 1995, pp. 3, 20.

Mehic, Dzenita. "_We Are Dying of Your Protection_." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 51, March-April 1995, pp. 41-44.

Author suggests reasons why the UN mission in Bosnia has not worked.

Militaris, Vox. "Bosnia: 24 Nations Send Soldiers to UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]." Army Quarterly & Defence Journal, Vol. 123, January 1993, pp. 19-26.

"Mission Expanded to Monitor Pact: Peacemaking Efforts Continue." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, December 1994, p. 36.

Georgia.

Morillon, Philippe. "UN Operations in Bosnia: Lessons and Realities." RUSI Journal, Vol. 138, December 1993, pp. 31-35.

Naylor, Sean D. "Artillery Has New Role in Bosnian Mission." Army Times, 25 December 1995, p. 16.

Naylor, Sean D. "Mine-Clearing Job Has Successful Start." Army Times, 22 January 1996, pp. 12-14.

Bosnia.

Naylor, Sean D. "Mission Mix: Mud and Floods." Army Times, 8 January 1996, p. 8.

Bosnia.

Naylor, Sean D. "The Nuts and Bolts of Building Peace." Army Times, 1 January 1996, pp. 6, 12, 21.

Bosnia.

Naylor, Sean D. "Trust Emerges in Meeting with Muslim Forces." Army Times, 29 January 1996, pp. 14, 18.

Bosnia

"New UN Peace-Keeping Operation Launched to Verify Cease-Fire Pact." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, December 1993, p. 51.

Georgia.

O'Brien, Kevin A. "Russian Peacekeeping in the Near Abroad." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, July-August 1994, pp. 14-17.

"OPERATION JOINT ENDEAVOR: Events in Bosnia through Thursday Morning, Jan. 11." Army Times, 22 January 1996, p. 36.

"Peacemaking Efforts _Must Continue_ Despite Persistent Problems: Secretary-General Calls for Comprehensive Approach." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, pp. 27-31.

Yugoslav crisis.

"Perry: Deployment a Historic Opportunity." Army Times, 11 December 1995, p. 8.

Remarks by Secretary of Defense, William J. Perry, regarding the Bosnia mission.

Perry, William J. "U.S. Policy on Bosnia Remains Consistent." Defense Issues, Vol. 10, No. 60, 1995, entire issue.

Prepared statement of the Secretary of Defense to Congress, 7 June 1995.

Post, Tom. "Blues for the Blue Helmets." Newsweek, Vol. 123, 7 February 1994, pp. 22-23.

Bosnia.

Ripley, Tim. "Bosnia Mission Forces UN to Grow with the Times." International Defense Review, Vol. 27, May 1994, pp. 63-65.

Rodman, Peter W. "Bosnian Quagmire." National Review, Vol. 47, 26 June 1995, pp. 26-27.

Rose, Michael. "Bosnia Herzegovina 1994-NATO Support for UN Wider Peacekeeping Operations." NATO's Sixteen Nations, Vol. 39, No. 3-4, 1994, pp. 8-11.

Rose, Michael. "A Year in Bosnia: What Has Been Achieved." RUSI Journal, Vol. 140, June 1995, pp. 22-25.

Sharp, Jane M.O. "Intervention in Bosnia-The Case For." World Today, Vol. 49, February 1993, pp. 29-32.

Stoltenberg, Thorvald. "Eyewitness I: Introducing Peacekeeping to Europe." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Summer 1995, pp. 215-223.

"Tajikistan Operation Established." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, March 1995, pp. 36-37.

Tarnoff, Peter. "U.S. Policy on Bosnia and Assistance to UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force]." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 6, 26 June 1995, pp. 531-532.

"A _Terrible War_ Rages On: International Tribunal Begins Work." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, pp. 62-66.

Yugoslav crisis.

Tharoor, Shashi. "United Nations Peacekeeping in Europe." Survival, Vol. 37, Summer 1995, pp. 121-134.

"Three Separate Operations Created on 31 March." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, pp. 23-27.

Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

"U.N. Forces in the Former Yugoslavia: Caught Between Withdrawal and Escalation." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5, May-June 1995, pp. 48-63.

"The UN's Last Chance in Bosnia." Economist, Vol. 335, 10 June 1995, pp. 43-44.

Wallace, Bruce. "Mission Impossible: The United Nations Contemplates a Pullout from the Quagmire That Is Bosnia." Maclean's, Vol. 107, 12 December 1994, pp. 28-32.

LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

Books and Documents

Child, Jack. The Central American Peace Process, 1983-1991: Sheathing Swords, Building Confidence. Boulder: Rienner, 1992. 200pp. (F1439.5 .C525 1992)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Pp. 436-462: "UN Observer Group in Central America," by Brian D. Smith and William J. Durch. (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Perusse, Roland I. Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995. Lanham: University Press of America, 1995. Pp. 97-111: "UN-Sanctioned Intervention." (F1928.2 .P47 1995)

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. Pp. 141-159: "UN Peacekeeping in Central America," by Larman C. Wilson and Raúl González Díaz. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

United Nations. Department of Public Information. The United Nations and El Salvador, 1990-1995. United Nations Blue Books Series, Vol. 4. New York: 1995. 611pp. (JX1977.2 .A1B59 v.4)

Periodical Articles

Albright, Madeleine K. "Reinforcing Haitian Democracy." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 17 October 1994, pp. 699-700.

Albright, Madeleine K. "Shared Resolve in Restoring Democracy in Haiti." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 15 August 1994, pp. 554-556.

Benson, Kevin C.M. "A Report from Haiti: Cavalry in Peacekeeping Operations." Armor, Vol. 54, November-December 1995, pp. 15-17.

Bowermaster, David, et al. "Dealing with a Bad Hand?" U.S. News World Report, Vol. 117, 3 October 1994, pp. 26-31.

US role as peacekeeper in restoring democracy to Haiti.

Christopher, Warren. "Restoring Democracy to Haiti." U.S. Department of State Dispatch, Vol. 5, 3 October 1994, pp. 653-654.

Clinton, William J. "Invasion of Haiti Canceled: Peaceful Entry Agreed Upon." Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 60, 1 October 1994, pp. 740-741.

"A Creeping Mission: Only U.S. Forces Can Rescue Haiti from Chaos: But at What Cost?" U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 117, 10 October 1994, pp. 24-35.

Day, Graham M. "Naval Peacekeeping: A Practical Account." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, March-April 1993, pp. 5-6.

In Honduras and El Salvador.

Grenier, Yvon, and Daudelin, Jean. "Foreign Assistance and the Market-Place of Peacemaking: Lessons from El Salvador." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Autumn 1995, pp. 350-364.

"Haiti: United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 (1994)." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Winter 1994, pp. 499-502.

"Here We Go Again." Special Report. Newsweek, Vol. 124, 26 September 1994, pp. 20-24.

Overview of the Haitian crisis.

Holiday, David, and Stanley, William. "Building the Peace: Preliminary Lessons from El Salvador." Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, Winter 1993, pp. 415-438.

Ide, Douglas. "A Presence for Peace." Soldiers, Vol. 49, November 1994, pp. 13-16.

American and coalition forces in Haiti.

Isby, David. "Restoring Hope Yet Again?-Military Intervention in Haiti." Jane's Intelligence Review, Vol. 6, August 1994, pp. 381-383.

Killebrew, Robert B., and Petraeus, David H. "Winning the Peace: Haiti, the US, and the UN." Armed Forces Journal International, Vol. 132, April 1995, pp. 40-41.

Klepak, Hal. "Haiti Takes Its Next Step." Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 23, 13 May 1995, pp. 19-20.

Matthews, William. "Haiti Troops Start Heading Home." Army Times, 22 January 1996, p. 6.

Morris, Justin. "Force and Democracy: UN/US Intervention in Haiti." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Autumn 1995, pp. 391-412.

"Multinational Force Replaced by UN Peace-Keepers." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, pp. 4-6.

Haiti.

Naylor, Sean D. "New Command Boosts Security in Haiti." Army Times, 4 December 1995, p. 10.

Naylor, Sean D. "Well Done, But Warlike It's Not." Army Times, 3 July 1995, pp. 10, 16.

US peacekeeping in Haiti.

Neves, Juan C. "The Argentine Navy and United Nations Peace-Keeping Operations in the Gulf of Fonseca." Naval War College Review, Vol. 47, Winter 1994, pp. 40-67.

Norden, Deborah L. "Keeping the Peace, Outside and In: Argentina's UN Missions." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Autumn 1995, pp. 330-349.

Oakley, Robert B., and Bentley, David. "Peace Operations: A Comparison of Somalia and Haiti." Strategic Forum, No. 30, May 1995, entire issue.

Olmstead, Lance. "Peacekeeping El Salvador." Sentinel, Vol. 29, August-September 1993, pp. 8-9.

"ONUSAL [UN Observer Mission in El Salvador] Mandate Extended to April 1995." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, March 1995, p. 7.

"ONUSAL [UN Observer Mission in El Salvador]: Mission Accomplished: Verification Group Set Up." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, p. 7.

Padilla, Luis A. "Conflict Transformation: Peace-Making and Peace-Building in Guatemala." Peace Research, Vol. 27, November 1995, pp. 17-24.

"_Region of Peace_ Called For: El Salvador Elections Near." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, March 1994, p. 74.

"U.N. Forces Assume Peace-Keeping Role in Haiti." Foreign Policy Bulletin, Vol. 5, May-June 1995, pp. 77-78.

MIDDLE EAST AND MEDITERRANEAN

Books and Documents

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Part 2: "Peacekeeping in the Mediterranean and the Middle East." (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Pelcovits, Nathan A. The Long Armistice: UN Peacekeeping and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948-1960. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993. 264pp. (DS119.7 .P443 1993)

Robertson, Victor M., III. The Relationship Between War and Peacekeeping. Monograph. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1992. 45pp. (U415 .A42 92 R62)

Uses the October 1973 war between Egypt and Israel and the UN Emergency Force II as a case study.

Salem, Norma, ed. Cyprus: A Regional Conflict and Its Resolution. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 260pp. (DS54 .C893 1992)

Siilasvuo, Ensio. In the Service of Peace in the Middle East, 1967-1979. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 388pp. (JX1981 .P7S495 1992)

Stjernfelt, Bertil. The Sinai Peace Front: UN Peacekeeping Operations in the Middle East, 1973-1980. Translated by Stig Nihlen. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. 236pp. (UA832 .S74 1992)

Thakur, Ramesh, and Thayer, Carlyle A., eds. A Crisis of Expectations: UN Peacekeeping in the 1990s. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 317pp. (JX1981 .P7T47 1995)

Pp. 25-50: "Peacekeeping in the Middle East," by Ramesh Thakur.

Pp. 51-64: "The UN Force in Cyprus," by Alan James.

Waugh, David B. Peacekeeping and Principles of Operational Warfare: The U.S. and MNF in Lebanon, 1983-4. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 25pp. (V420 .W18 1993)

Videorecording

U.S. Peacekeeping Mission: The Beirut Fiasco, directed by David Wright. Princeton: Films for the Humanities & Science, 1994. Videorecording, 49 mins. (VIDEO DS87 .U77 1994)

Periodical Articles

Abizaid, John P. "Lessons for Peacekeepers." Military Review, Vol. 73, March 1993, pp. 11-19.

Northern Iraq.

Bardehle, Peter. "The Role of the United Nations in the Settlement of the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88." Conflict Quarterly, Vol. 12, Spring 1992, pp. 36-50.

Clinton, William J. "Letter to Congressional Leaders Reporting on the Cyprus Conflict, April 18, 1994." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Vol. 30, 25 April 1994, pp. 834-836.

Cooper, Robert, and Berdal, Mats. "Outside Intervention in Ethnic Conflicts." Survival, Vol. 35, Spring 1993, pp. 118-142.

Cyprus, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Lebanon, former Yugoslavia, former Soviet Union, Liberia.

Doyle, E.D. "Verification in the Sinai-An Integrated Approach." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Autumn 1994, pp. 338-348.

Evriviades, Marios, and Bourantonis, Dimitris. "Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: Some Lessons from Cyprus." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Winter 1994, pp. 394-412.

Garcia, Elroy. "A Test of Patience." Soldiers, Vol. 49, March 1994, pp. 37-41.

Duty in the Sinai.

Henn, Francis. "The Nicosia Airport Incident of 1974: A Peacekeeping Gamble." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Spring 1994, pp. 80-98.

Cyprus.

"Joint Meetings Held in New York." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, March 1993, p. 69.

Cyprus.

Lane, Larry. "The Changing of the Guard." Soldiers, Vol. 50, February 1995, pp. 13-15.

82d Airborne Division's 4th Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment soldiers augment the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai.

Lane, Larry. "Learning the Ways of Sinai." Soldiers, Vol. 50, February 1995, pp. 16-17.

"Lebanon Force Mandate Extended for Another Six Months." UN Chronicle, Vol. 32, June 1995, p. 22.

McDonald, Robert. "Cyprus: A Peacekeeping Paradigm." World Today, Vol. 49, October 1993, pp. 182-184.

Mandelbaum, Michael. "The Reluctance to Intervene." Foreign Policy, No. 95, Summer 1994, pp. 3-18.

Discusses post-cold-war US and UN peacekeeping missions, focusing on Iraq, Somalia, and Bosnia.

Peters, Katherine M. "The Army's $18 Million Gamble: Special Report on the Reserve's Sinai Mission." Army Times, 1 May 1995, pp. 12-14.

Schilling, Anthony M. "United Nations Military Observer Duty." Military Police, Spring 1995, pp. 26-28.

"Security Council Renews Force Mandate: No Agreement on Confidence-Building Package." UN Chronicle, Vol. 31, September 1994, p. 38.

Cyprus.

"Talks Continue, UNFICYP [UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus] Funding Changed." UN Chronicle, Vol. 30, September 1993, pp. 46-47.

"U.S. Forces on the Golan Heights? A Special Report." Commentary, Vol. 98, December 1994, pp. 73-88.

In-depth study conducted by 11 military experts for the Center for Security Policy.

Zarov, Basil. "Assignment: Cyprus." MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 5, Autumn 1992, pp. 54-63.

Professional photographer hired by UN.

SPECIAL PEACEKEEPING ASPECTS, ISSUES, AND CONCERNS

Books and Documents

Alberts, David S., and Hayes, Richard E. Command Arrangements for Peace Operations. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1995. 136pp. (U411 .I6A41 1995)

Adler, Amy B.; Bartone, Paul T.; and Vaitkus, Mark A. Family Stress and Adjustment During a Peacekeeping Deployment. Heidelberg: US Army Medical Research Unit-Europe, August 1994. 19pp. (U22.3 .A24 1994)

Bash, Brooks L. The Role of United States Air Power in Peacekeeping. Thesis. Maxwell Air Force Base: US Air University, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, June 1994. 44pp. (UG635.3 .U51 TH B17)

Brooks, Michael A. The United Nations Standing Force: A Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 63pp. (V420 .B766 1993)

Bullock, Harold E. Peace by Committee: Command and Control Issues in Multinational Peace Enforcement Operations. Maxwell Air Force Base: Air University Press, February 1995. 80pp. (UG635.3 .U51 TH B84)

Conetta, Carl, and Knight, Charles. Vital Force: A Proposal for the Overhaul of the UN Peace Operations System and for the Creation of a UN Legion. Cambridge: Commonwealth Institute, 1 October 1995. 141pp. (JX1981 .P7C6 1995)

Doll, William J., and Metz, Steven. The Army and Multinational Peace Operations: Problems and Solutions. Report of a Roundtable sponsored by the US Army War College Strategic Studies Institute and the US Army Peacekeeping Institute. Carlisle Barracks: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 29 November 1993. 30pp. (U413 .A66 SR D65)

Durch, William J., ed. The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993. 509pp. Chap. 3: "Paying the Tab: Financial Crises," by William J. Durch. (JX1981 .P7E92 1992)

Fink, Jon. From Peacekeeping to Peace Enforcement: The Blurring of the Mandate for the Use of Force in Maintaining International Peace and Security. Master's Thesis. Monterey: US Naval Postgraduate School, 1 June 1994. 77pp. (JX1981 .P7F35 1994)

Lumetta, John P. UN Stand-By Forces: The Next Step Towards a System of Collective Security. Newport: US Naval War College, 18 June 1993. 107pp. (V420 .L85 1993)

McCoubrey, Hilaire, and White, Nigel D. International Law and Armed Conflict. Brookfield: Dartmouth, 1992. 371pp. Pp. 171-185: "Peacekeeping." (JX4511 .M38 1992)

McGreevy, Paul E. The Proposal for a United Nations Permanent Armed Force: United States Options. Newport: US Naval War College, 22 February 1993. 25pp. (V420 .M24 1993)

National Defense University. Institute for National Strategic Studies. Center for Advanced Command Concepts and Technology. Command and Control in Peace Operations. Washington: 1994-1995. 2 vols. (U411 .I61 W6 no. 1, no. 3)

Roper, John, et al. Keeping the Peace in the Post-Cold War Era: Strengthening Multilateral Peacekeeping: A Report to the Trilateral Commission. Triangle Papers No. 43. New York: Trilateral Commission, 1993. 101pp. Pp. 17-48: "Financing UN Peacekeeping," by Enid C.B. Schoetttle. (JX1954 .K345 1993)

Rostow, Eugene V. Should Article 43 of the United Nations Charter Be Raised from the Dead? McNair Paper Nineteen. Washington: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, July 1993. 22pp. (U411 .I6M12 no.19)

Establishing a strong military force under the control of the Security Council.

Segal, David R., and Segal, Mady W. Peacekeepers and Their Wives: American Participation in the Multinational Force and Observers. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1993. 181pp. (JX1981 .P7S44 1993)

Sim, D. Leslie W. Men of War for Missions of Peace: Naval Forces in Support of United Nations Resolutions. Research Report 8-94. Newport: US Naval War College, Strategic Research Department, 1 August 1994. 72pp. (V420 .C51 94-8)

Smith, Douglas. Training Requirements and Training Availability for United Nations Peacekeeping Forces. Research Memorandum 7-93. Newport: US Naval War College, Strategic Research Department, 20 September 1993. 26pp. (V420 .C5 93-7)

Snider, Don M., and Schwartzstein, Stuart J.D., eds. The United Nations at Fifty: Sovereignty, Peacekeeping, and Human Rights. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1995. 74pp. Pp. 45-54: "NATO Participation in Peacekeeping Operations," by Richard J. Evraire. (JX1977 .U42585 1995)

Todd, Maurice L. Army Tactical Requirements for Peace Support Operations. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1993. 63pp. (U415 .A42 94 T52)

US Army Training and Doctrine Command. Center for Army Lessons Learned. Peace Operations Training Vignettes with Possible Solutions. Newsletter No. 95-2. Fort Leavenworth: March 1995. 1 vol. (U408.3 .C24 no. 95-02)

US Army War College. Strategic Studies Institute. Multinational Force Command Authorities Handbook: Proceedings of the Central Region-Chiefs of Army Staff (CR-CAST) Working Group on Command Authorities Required for a Multinational Force Commander. Carlisle Barracks: 1 September 1995. 104pp. (U413 .A66M8 1995)

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Cost of DOD Operations in Somalia: Report to Congressional Committees. Washington: March 1994. 54pp. (UH723 .U531 1994)

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Effect of Training, Equipment, and Other Factors on Unit Capability: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: October 1995. 50pp. (UA16 .U534 1995)

US General Accounting Office. Peace Operations: Estimated Fiscal Year 1995 Costs to the United States: Briefing Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. Washington: May 1995. 31pp. (UA16 .U532 1995)

US General Accounting Office. United Nations: How Assessed Contributions for Peacekeeping Operations Are Calculated: Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington: August 1994, 36pp. (JK1977.8 .F5U53 1994)

Warner, Daniel, ed. New Dimensions of Peacekeeping. Boston: Nijhoff, 1995. 210pp. Pp. 159-162: "Managing Peacekeeping from a Legal Perspective," by Ralph Zacklin. (JX1981 .P7N45 1995)

Worrell, Harold H., Jr. The Role of Fire Support in Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Operations. Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies, 1993. 51pp. (U415 .A42 94 W66)

Wurmser, David, and Dyke, Nancy B. The Professionalization of Peacekeeping: A Study Group Report, ed. by Robert B. Oakley, Indar J. Rikhye, and Kenneth M. Jensen. Washington: United States Institute of Peace, 1993. 70pp. (JX4481 .W87 1993)

Periodical Articles

Abizaid, John P., and Wood, John R. "Preparing for Peacekeeping: Military Training and the Peacekeeping Environment." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 14-20.

Adams, James. "The Role of the Media in Peacekeeping Operations." Special Warfare, Vol. 7, April 1994, pp. 12-13.

Adams, Paul D. "Rules of Engagement: The Peacekeeper's Friend or Foe?" Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 77, October 1993, pp. 21-23.

Adams, Thomas K. "SOF [Special Operations Forces] in Peace-Support Operations." Special Warfare, Vol. 6, October 1993, pp. 2-7.

Annan, Kofi A. "UN Peacekeeping Operations and Cooperation with NATO." NATO Review, Vol. 41, October 1993, pp. 3-7.

Bash, Brooks L. "Airpower and Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal, Vol. 9, Spring 1995, pp. 66-78.

Bird, Kai. "The Case for a U.N. Army." Nation, Vol. 259, 8-15 August 1994, pp. 160-164.

Bloom, Evan T. "Protecting Peacekeepers: The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel." American Journal of International Law, Vol. 89, July 1995, pp. 621-631.

Cairns, P.W. "Maritime Training for Peacekeeping Operations." NATO's Sixteen Nations, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, pp. 17-20.

"Coalition Command and Control: Peace Operations." Strategic Forum, No. 10, October 1994, entire issue.

Connaughton, Richard. "Wider Peacekeeping-How Wide of the Mark?" British Army Review, No. 111, December 1995, pp. 55-64.

NATO's involvement in peacekeeping operations.

Gerry, Alexander A.C. "Peacekeeping: Reserves Role Expanded." Officer, Vol. 70, July 1994, pp. 32-36.

Gow, James, and Dandeker, Christopher. "Peace-Support Operations: The Problem of Legitimation." World Today, Vol. 51, August-September 1995, pp. 171-174.

Harper, Gregory P. "Creating a U.N. Peace Enforcement Force: A Case for U.S. Leadership." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 49-63.

Herteleer, W. "Mine Warfare in Peacekeeping Operations." NATO's Sixteen Nations, Vol. 39, No. 1, 1994, pp. 14-16.

Hillen, John F., III. "Policing the New World Order: The Operational Utility of a Permanent U.N. Army." Strategic Review, Vol. 22, Spring 1994, pp. 54-62.

Hitchens, Theresa, and Leopold, George. "U.N. Adjusts to Police Role: Awkwardly Looks to NATO to Help with Peacekeeping." Defense News, Vol. 8, 7-13 June 1993, pp. 1, 50.

Jurado, Sonia R., and Diehl, Paul F. "UN Peacekeeping and Arms Control Verification." Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 15, April 1994, pp. 38-54.

Kime, Carl M. "Peacekeeping Operations: Maintaining _Consent_ at the Tactical Level." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 80, February 1996, pp. 48-49.

Kirsch, Philippe. "The Legal Basis of Peacekeeping." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 23, September 1993, pp. 18-23.

Lane, Larry. "Comrades in Arms." Soldiers, Vol. 49, November 1994, pp. 37-41.

Describes PEACEKEEPER 1994, a combined American-Russian training exercise.

Leach, Raymond J. "_Information_ Support to U.N. Forces." Marine Corps Gazette, Vol. 78, September 1994, pp. 49-50.

Lehmann, Ingrid A. "Peacekeeping, Public Perceptions and the Need for Consent." Canadian Defence Quarterly, Vol. 25, December 1995, pp. 17-19.

Lehmann, Ingrid A. "Public Perceptions of U.N. Peacekeeping: A Factor in the Resolution of International Conflicts." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 19, Winter-Spring 1995, pp. 109-119.

Leurdijk, Dick A. "Proposals for Increasing Rapid Deployment Capacity: A Survey." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 2, Spring 1995, pp. 1-10.

Lewis, William H. "Peace Operations: Is a Standing Force Needed?" Strategic Forum, No. 27, April 1995, entire issue.

Mallette, Rodney A. "Logistics for UN Peacekeeping Operations." Army Logistician, January-February 1994, pp. 22-24.

Maze, Rick. "Congress Debates Foreign Command: Keeping Troops Out from Under Foreign Leadership Could Derail U.N. Role." Army Times, 29 November 1993, p. 26.

Metz, Steven. "The Air Force Role in United Nations Peacekeeping." Airpower Journal, Vol. 7, Winter 1993, pp. 68-81.

Michaels, Marguerite. "Blue-Helmet Blues: Strapped for Cash and Short of Manpower, U.N. Peacekeepers Are Asked to Do Too Much with Too Little." Time, Vol. 142, 15 November 1993, pp. 66-67.

Miller, David. "Naval Training for Multinational Peacekeeping." International Defense Review, Vol. 26, December 1993, pp. 955-960.

Morrison, Alex. "The Fiction of a U.N. Standing Army." Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 18, Winter-Spring 1994, pp. 83-96.

Morrison, David C. "Make Peace-Or Else!" National Journal, Vol. 24, 3 October 1992, pp. 2250-2254.

UN standing army.

Morrocco, John D. "U.S. Trains for Peacekeeping." Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 140, 25 April 1994, pp. 36-37.

Joint eight-day exercise in Alaska.

Ogorkiewicz, R.M. "Armouring Vehicles for Peacekeeping." International Defense Review, Vol. 27, February 1994, pp. 33-36.

Oswald, Julian. "U.N. Maritime Operations: _Realities, Problems, and Possibilities_." Naval War College Review, Vol. 46, Autumn 1993, pp. 124-129.

Powell, Stewart M. "American Troops-American Command." Air Force, Vol. 77, January 1994, pp. 46-49.

Turning US forces over to UN field command.

Rechner, Patrick A. "Should the UN Have Its Own Army?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 23, March-April 1994, pp. 4-5.

Rufini, Giovanni. "The Potential of Non-Governmental Organizations in Peacekeeping Negotiation and Mediation." Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 24, May-June 1995, pp. 5-6.

Smith, Hugh. "Intelligence and UN Peacekeeping." Survival, Vol. 36, Autumn 1994, pp. 174-192.

Smith, William D. "Peacemaking from the Sea." Proceedings: U.S. Naval Institute, Vol. 119, August 1993, pp. 25-28.

Stanley, Timothy. "A Better Way to Keep the Peace." American Legion, Vol. 134, March 1993, pp. 32-33, 54.

Commentary on a UN standing force.

Terry, James P. "A Legal Review of U.S. Military Involvement in Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Operations." Naval Law Review, Vol. 42, 1995, pp. 79-89.

Thornberry, Cedric. "Civil Affairs in the Development of UN Peacekeeping." International Peacekeeping, Vol. 1, Winter 1994, pp. 471-484.

Warfe, P.G. "Military Medicine and Peacekeeping." Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 104, January-February 1994, pp. 60-67.

Weinrod, W. Bruce. "U.N. Peacekeeping: A Question of Command." American Legion, Vol. 136, February 1994, pp. 20-22, 61.

"Who Commands Whom?" Peacekeeping & International Relations, Vol. 22, March-April 1993, p. 15.

Essay discusses decision to allow US troops, engaged in peacekeeping activities, to be placed under authority of commanders from other countries.

Wilson, T.R. "Should NATO Involve Itself in Wider Peacekeeping Operations?" British Army Review, No. 111, December 1995, pp. 74-86.