HISTORY OF CARLISLE BARRACKS
HISTORY OF CARLISLE BARRACKS
a. The first regular military garrison at Carlisle Barracks was established 30 May 1757, with the arrival of one battalion of the Royal Americans (the 60th Regiment) and 1900 Provincial troops from Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Maryland under the command of
Colonel John Stanwix. Throughout the French and Indian Wars (1756-1763), the post served as a supply base and jumping-off point for expeditions to the west including Brigadier General Forbes’ seizure of Fort Duquesne (1758). During Pontiac’s War (1763),
Lieutenant Colonel Henry Bouquet led a 460-man force from Carlisle consisting of volunteers and men from the 42d Highlanders (Black Watch) and the 77th Regiment to a decisive victory over the Indians at Bushy Run.
b. Early in the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress directed the establishment of several ordnance powder factories. The availability of many skilled armorers in the area around Carlisle, together with iron and wood for charcoal within easy reach, made Carlisle Barracks or Washingtonburg, as it was called around 1777, an ideal location for an arsenal. In 1777 the Continental Congress designated Carlisle as the site of an Ordnance Magazine. Also in 1777 a group of Revolutionary War officers came to attend the first American Artillery School. In 1794 during the so-called Whiskey Rebellion, a force of
approximately 15,000 men was assembled here. On 4 October 1794, President Washington arrived and took command of the force. He remained for eight days, then set off for western Pennsylvania to quell the dissidents.
c. In 1879, Carlisle Barracks was transferred to the Department of Interior for use as an American Indian Industrial School. Under the guidance of Lieutenant (later Brigadier General) Richard H. Pratt, the school achieved world renown. In the 39 years of its existence, the Carlisle Indian School grew rapidly, and in addition to academic studies, both American Indians and Puerto Ricans were taught the mechanical arts, farming, cooking, sewing and many other practical courses.
d. In 1918, the Army reclaimed Carlisle Barracks for use as a hospital which gave way to the Medical Field Service School. From 1921 to 1946 it graduated some 30,000 medical officers and corpsmen trained in field operations. Many concepts including the individual first aid packet and aerial front line medical evacuation were developed here.
e. Between 1946 and the arrival of the Army War College in 1951, Carlisle Barracks was the temporary home, at one time or another, of the School for Government of Occupied Area, the Adjutant General’s School, and the Army Information School, later named the Armed Forces Information School. Since 1951, Carlisle Barracks has been the home of the U.S. Army War College.
Members of the Carlisle Industrial Indian School
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